iz?i?�i�?e��e�? i��i?�e?? i??i�?i?� “i�?is?i��e?�is? i��e�?i�?eS� (e??i??i��iY? i��i�?i��e??e?� i��i??) i�?i��i�?i?? iz?e��”e�� “e??i??i?? i�?i��i�?e��eS� e??i??i��i?? i��i��i??iz? i??e�?i??i?� i��e�?e?� e?� e�? e??i�? i?�iz?i��iz�i�? e??i?� i?�i�? i?� i��e??iz?i?? i�?i��e??e?� e��i??e??eS� e??”i??e??e?� e?�i??i�?e��. i�� i??i�?i?� e�? i?�iz?i��iz�i?� i�?e?�i�?e�� e??i??i�� is?e?�i??e?? i??i�? i??i�?i?? i�?e��i��i?� i�?e?�i�? i?� i��e??iz?i?? i??e?�i�? e?�i�? ‘e??i??i�� e��i�?’i??e??eS� e�?i?? e�?i??e��e��, e��i??e�� i��e??i�?i�? i��i�?i�?eS� e?? i��e��i�? e?�i�? i??i??e??e?� i??iz?i�?e��. e��i?� e�? e?�i�?i�? i??i�?i?� “i??e?�i�?e??eS� e��i??i�?e?� iz?e?�eS� i�?i�� i?? i��i�?e��e?� i�?eS�e?� (i??eY� i??i??i?? iz?i?� e??is� e��i??e��i�?i?�) e?�i��i�?eS� e?? i��i??e��e?? e��e??i?� i?�i�? i??i?� i??”i??e??e?� e?�e��i?�e��. iz?i?�i�?e��e�? e?�i?�i�� i??i�?i?� i?� i��e??iz?e�� e�?iZ? is?i��i?? i��e�?i??i��e?? e��is?i??i�? e??i??e?�i??e?? i��is�i�? e??i?� e??i�?i?� e??i��i�? e��e��e?�e�?i�?e?� i?�e�?i??e??e?� i�?i?�i�?e��. i?� i��e??iz?eS� “i??i�?i��i�?i�? i??i�?e?�e��i��eS� e�?iZ? is?i��i��i?? i�?e�� e??i�� e?�e?�e?� i��i�?e?� (is?i��i�?i�?) i��i��i?? i�?i��i�? i??i??i?�e��”e?� i�?e?�i�?e��. i�?e??i??i??e??eS� e?�i�? i��e�?i??i��i?�eS�e?� ‘i��i��i?? i�?i��’e??eS� e��e?�i?� e��i�?i�?i�?e��eS� i��i�?i�? i?� i��e??iz?eS� “i��e�?i??i��i�?i�? e?�i��eS� e??i??e?? i��e��e??e��”e?� e��i�?e��. i�?e��e�? e??i??e?� i??i�?i?� i?� i��e??iz?i?? is�i�?e?� e??iz�e��i�� e??e�?i?? 2e��i??e?? e?? iz?eS�e?� i��i�? e��i?? e?�e��i?? 6e�?i��i??i�?e?? e??i?� i��i�?i�?e��. i?� i��e??iz?eS� “is�i�?e?�e�� i??e?�i�?i??e?? e??iz�e��i�� e?�i�? e?�e��i?� 2e��i??e?? i�?e?� iz?e��”e�� “2011e�� 2i��e?�i�? e��i??e?? i�?e?�, i??i�� e�?e�?i�? 2012e��i�?eS� e��i??i�� i?? i��e��eS� e?�i?� e�?i?�i��e�? e?�i�?i?? 2e��i??i�?i�? e??e�?i�?e?�i�?e�� e�?e��e?? e�?e?�e??e��”e?� i�?e?�i�?e��. e��e??e??ez?e�? i?�i�?i�� i??i�?i?� “i??i�?i�?i?� e�?e�? e??eS�e?� e�?e??e�? e��i?? i�? i�?e?�e��e?� i�? e??i?� iz?e?�e?? e??”i??e??e�� “iS?iz? 2012e�� i??i�� i?�iS�i��i�? e��e?? e??e�?e?? e��e�� is�i�?e?� e??e�?i�?eS� ‘i��'(a�?)i??e??e?� i��i�� iz?i�� i�Si?� e??i?� e??e�? i?? i??e��e�� e??e?�i�?i�� e?�i�?e��”e?� i��i�?i�?e��. i��e�? i??i�?e��i?� i�?e�?i?? e�?e��i��eS� e?�i�? e??eS� e??e?�i�? e?�e?�i?� i�?e?� iz?e��e?� i??iz?i�?e��. e??i??e�? e��is�i�� i??i�?i?� “i�?i??e�� e�?e��e?�i�? i�?e�? 8i??500e�?i�?i?? iz?e��eS� e??e?�e�? i��e�? i�zi�?i�? i�?e?�i?�e�?i?� i�?e��eS� e??e?� e��i?? iz?eS�e?� e?�e?�e?�e?�i�? i��i�� i�? i��i��e�? i�?e??e�? e?� i??(i��i��i?? i��e�?i?� i�? i?? iz?eS� i??)”i??e??e�� “i�?e�?i?? (i??eY� i??i??i?� i�?e?�i�? i�?e??i�?) e�?e��iz?i?? e?�i�?i?� i�?eS� e?? is�iS�e��”e?� i??e�?i�?e��. i�?e�? e?�e�? i??i??i?� i�?e?�i�? i�?e��e�? i��i?�e?? i??i�?i?� i?� i��e??iz?e�� e�?e��iz?e??e?? i�?e?�e?? i�?i�?i�?i�� e?�i�?e��e�� i��e��i�?i?? e?�i�?i??e??e?� e�zi��e?�, i?? e??i��i�?i�? e�? i??i�? i��i??i�? e?�i��i?? i?�e��e��. e??i??e�? e�? i�?i??e�? i??i�?i?� “(i?�iz?i��iz�) i�? i�?i??e�? i?�i�?e?�i��e�? e�?e??i?? i??e��e?? e?�i��e��i?? e�?is�i?� i��e�?e��”e??e�� “e��e?? i��e??iz?e��i?� e�? iz?i�?e�? 8i��e�� i?�i?� i��e�? e??e�?e��e?� i�?i�? i��i�?i�?i��e�? (i?� i��e??iz?i�? e?�i�? e?�e?�i??) e?�e��i?� e��e��ez�i?? i??eS� i��e��”e?� e�?i�?e��. i��e??e?? i??i�?i?� “i�?e?�e?? i�?e�?, e�?i��e?�e�?, i�?e�?e?�e?� e�?e�? iz�i?? e��i?? e�?i�?eS� i�?e?�i?? e��i��e�?e��eS� i??e�?i?? e��e��”e�� “i�?e?�i?? i��i��i�?i??e?? e??e?�i�?e?�, i�?e�? i??i�?e��i?? e��i��i�? i�?e?�eY?e?? i�?eS� ‘i??e?�e��e?�’e�� iz?e��”e?� e?�i��i�?e��.(e�?is�=i��i��e�?iS�) i?�i��is� i��i��i??i?�e�?iS� iS?i??i�? = e�?is�i�?i�?i�?i�? i??is� i��i??eS� i�?e?�(e�?is�=i��i��e�?iS�) i?�i��is� i��i��i??i?�e�?iS� iS?i??i�? = e�?is�i�?i�?i�?i�? i??is� i��i??eS� i�?e?�(e�?is�=i��i��e�?iS�) i?�i��is� i��i��i??i?�e�?iS� iS?i??i�? = e�?is�i�?i�?i�?i�? i??is� i��i??eS� i�?e?� “The future will require sourcing from known origins and in many cases known farms, with price and sustainability impacts evaluated side by side and generally from longer term partnership arrangements with fewer suppliers. We have started to make this shift.””e??e�?i?? i��e�?”a��i��i��e?? e?�i�?i�� e�?e�? e�?e�� e?�i??i�?e?? i��e�? (e??e��i��=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�e?�i�?iz�e�?A�i�?i��i�� e?�iz? = i?�e��e??e��eS� i�?i?�i�?i?? i��i�?e��. e??i??e�� i??i�?i??e�� e?�i�?e?� e��ez� e�?i??e?� i�?e?� i�?e��i�?i�? e?�ez�e?�ez� e?�i��e?� eS?i�?e��. e�?eY�e�? e?? i�? e??i?? e?�i�? i��eS� i??e?�i?? i�?e?? i�zi??e?? e��e��i��e��. e��i?�e��i?� i�?is?i�? e?�i?�i?� i��i?? e�?i��e�� i�?e?? i��i��i�� e�?e�?e?? e�?ez?e?? i��e�?e?? i??e?�e��i�?e��. i�?e?� i�?e�? i��i�?i��i?? i�?i�?eS� 10i�� e?�i��e�? i��e��e?? i�ze�?e?� i��i??i�? e�?i��i��i��i?? i??i�?i��eS� e��is?e?� i��i��i?? e??e�� i??i?? e�� i�?e�� i�?e??e?� i��i��e??e?� e�?e�?i??e��. i?�i??i?? KBi�?e�? i��e��i�?i?� “e��e?? i��i??e�� i��i��eS� i�?i��i?� i�?i��e��e?� iz?eS�e?� e??e??i�? i��i�?i��eS� i�?i�?i�?i�? e?�i�?e�?i�� e?�i�?eS� i??i��”i??e??e�� “e??e??i�?i??i�? iZ�e�?i?? i�?i��i?� i??e�� i�?e??e??e��eS� i�?i�?i�?i�?i�? e�?i??i�?eS� e��e��i?? i?�e��”e?� e�?i�?e��. i��i�? i�?e�? 1e�?i��e�� e??e??i�? e??e?�iS�i?? i��i??eS� 1.82% i�?e??i�? e�?i?�e��. e��i?� e?�e�� i��e�� i��i�? i��i??(-7.13%)e�? i��i??A i��i??(-7.41%)e??e�� i�?e?? i?�i?? i�?i�� iz�i?� i??i��i??e��. i??e��e�?i��i�?i?� i?�i�?iz?e��e?? i�?i�? e?�e?�iz? i��eY�e��i�?e?? e?� i?�i?� i�?i�?i?� i�?e?�i�� i?? iz?e?�e?? i��i�?i�?i�? IELTSe?? i�?i??i�?i??e��e?� iz?iS�e�?e��.is?i��i�? “i??iz?e�� 5i??e�? i�?i�?, i�?i?? i�?e�� e?�e?�” (is?i��=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�e�?i?? e?�iz? = SKe��iS�e�� is?i��i�? i??i�?e?? e��iS�e?�i�� e�?i��i�?i�� i??e��i��e??i��e�?(PP) i??i��e?�iz? e�?e�? e�� 2i?�200i��i�? e�?e??e?? i?�iz?i�?e��. is?i��i�?i�� is?i��i��e�?e?�i��eS� i�?i�?i�? i��i�� i��i��i?� i?�i�? e��i��e?? i�?e?�i�?e?� i??A�i�?e�� i??e�� e�� i��A�iz�i��i�? i�?e�? i��i��i?� i��i�?i�?e��. SKe��iS�i�� is?i��i�?, is?i��i��e�?e?�i��eS� 19i?? is?i��i�?i?�i�?i�? ‘i��e�? i��i�� i?�iz? i��i�?e�?i�?’e?? i??e?�i�?e?� i��i�� i��i��i?� i�?i�?i�?e��. SKe��iS� i��e�?i��i��i?� i??i�?e?? e��iS�e?�i�� e�?i��i�? e�?e�?e?? i��e?� i��i��i��(i��e??i��i��, i�?e�?i��i��iz?i�?iS�i�?, i??i��e?� e��), i??e��i��e??i��e�? i??i��e?�iz? e�?e�? e��i??e��. i??i�?e?? i��e??e?? i��is�i�?eS� i??i�?e?? e��iS�e?�i�� e�?i��i�?eS� 1i??aZ? 1e?� e�?e??e?? e�?e�� e��e??e?� i??i�? e��i��(14e�?2i??aZ?)i�? 2021e�� i��e?�, 2024e�� i��e?�e?� i??i��i??e��. i?? e�?i��i�?eS� i��e��i?? i�?8i�? i��e�?i??e?�e?�e??e?�is?i�? i?�i�?e?? is?i��i�? e�?i��i�� i?? iz?e?? e??e��. SK e?�e?�i��i�? i��iz�i??i�?e�?i�� i��e?�i?? i��e??i��i��i�� i�?e�?i��i��iz?i�?iS�i�?(ESS) i��e?�e?? e��i��i�?eS� i��e?� i��i��i��(3i??200i��i�? e�?e??)e?� e?�i�?i�? i��i��e??e��. iz?e?�i�?, i?�i��, i��i��i��i�� e�� e��e�? i�?e?� i��e�?i??is�i?? i�� i�?e�?i?? is?i��i?� i??i�?e?? e��iS�e?�i�� e�?i��i�?i�� i��e?� i��i��i��i?� i��i�? i�?i��i�?i?? i��e�? e?�e?�i�?i?� i��e??i�� i?? iz?e?? e??e��e?� i�?eS� e�?i?�e��.

e�? e?�i��e�?, 15e�? i?�i�� e?�i��i�? i��i��a��”is�e�� i�?e�? i?? e??ez?e?? e�?i��e��iz?” / i��i��e�?iS� (Yonhapnews) e??e��i?? i??e�� e��i�?i��e?? e�?e?� iz?i?� e�?e�? e?�i��A�i?�e�?i?? i�?e?�e�� e?�i��i��i?? i��e?�e?? i�?i�? e��i�?e�?i?� e??is� i�?iz� i??i�� e��i??e?? e?�i��i�� e?�e�?i?? e�?i�?i�? e?? i��e�?e?? i�?e??e�� e?�i?�i�?e?� e��i�?i?? i??e?? i?? iz?e��eS� is�e��e�� e?�e�?e��eS� i�?i�?e?� iz?e��. i��i�? iS?eY?i�� e?�i��e�?e?? e��e??is? e?�i��e�? i��i��i?? e��i�� e�?e�?i??i��(i��is�iS�i??e?�e??i??e�?) i??i�?i??i�?i?� i??e�� iS?i?�i�� e?�i?� i��i�? “i�?e��i?? (e�?i�?) e��e�?i?? e�?i�? i��e�?i�? e?�i�? i�?e?�i?? i��e�� e�?e�?i?� i�?i��i�� e??i??e?? is�e��i�?e��”e�� “i�?e��i?? e?�i��i?�i�?e?? e��i��e�?i�� i�?e??e��”e?� e?�i�?e��e?? e��i?�e��. i??e?? ‘i?�i�� e?�e�?’i?? i��e?�i�?e��e�? ‘i?�i�� e�?e�?i��i??is?e�?a��i?�i��i??is?i�?i�?i?? i�?e??i��i??is?e�?a��2i�? e�?e??i��i??is?e�?’i?? i��i??i�? e��i?�e?? i��e?�e?? e?�i��i�� e�?i??e�� e?�e�?i�?i?� i?�e�?i�? i��e�? i?�i��i��i�? i��i�� e��eS?i��i�? e�?e??e�� i��e�? i?? iz?e��. e�?e?�i?? e??is�i�?eS� e�?e�?i?? e�?e??e�� e�?i�� i??i??e�� iz?e?�i��e?� e?�i��i?? i��i�? e?? i��e�?e?? e?�i��i�� i?�i??i�? e?�i�? e??e��i?? is?i??e?�e?? e��e?? e?�i?�e?�i?? e?�is� is�i�?i�?i�? i?? iz?i�? e??i??e��. e��e�? e??e��i?? i??e?? e��i�?i�� e�?i��i?� i?�i??i?? i??e?�e�?i?� e��i??i�� i�Se?� i?�i�? e�?e?? e�� iz?e??e??e?� i�?i�?e?� i��i�� i�Si�� e??i??e��eS� e��i�?e?� e�?i??e��. iS?iz? e??e�� i??i?� i??e�? e�?e�?i��i??is?e�? i??i��i?� i��i??e??eS� i��i��i�? iS�i?�iS�e?? i�?i�?e�?i�? FFVDe?? e?�i�?i��e?? i�? e?�e�?i�?iz�i?? e?�i�?e?? e��iz?i??e�� i��e�� i??i?�e?? e��i??eS� e??i��i??i??e��. iS?eY?i�� e?�i��e�?i?� i??e�� iS?i?�i??e�? e?�iz?is?e?� e��i?� i��i�? ‘e�?i�? e?�e��’i?? iz?i�?i��e�?, e�?e�?i��i??is?e�? i??i��i�? e?�i�?i�?eS� i�?e?�i?� e�?e��i�� i�Si�?e��. ‘iS?i?? e��i??’i?? i?? e??i�? e��i��e?� e��e��i�?e??is?i??(NSC) e??i??e?�e?� ‘e��e�� i??e�?e��i�? i��ez�’ i��i��e?? e?�e�?i�? i�?e?� e??e��i��i�?i�? e�?e�?i��i??is?e�? e?�e�? i�?e�?i?� e��iz? “is�e��eS� i�?e�� i?�e??e�� e��i�? e�?i�?i?? e??e�� e?�eY�i??e??e�?e?� i��e??e�?ez? i�?e��e?? i�?i�?i��e��”eS� iz�iz?i?� iz�i��i??i�?e��. i��e?�i�? e?�e�? i?�i??i?� i??e?�i�?i?? e�?i??i?� i??iZ?i??i?� e��e�?iz?e?�i?� i?�eS� 27i?? e�?is� i?�i��e??e��i�?i�? i�?i��e??iz?i??i��is?(i�?e??e��) i??i��e�� iz?e?�e?� is?i??e?? i??iz�i�?e?�e?? i�?e��. e?�e�?i�?iz� i??i�� e�?i�?e?? e�?i??i�?e?� i?�i�? i�?e??e�� is?i??e?? i��e�� i�?i��i�?e?� i??i?� i��iz?i��i??e?? e??i??e��. i��e?�i?� iz?e??i�? e��e??e�? e��e�� i��i�� i�?e�?i�?i?? i�� 7i??e�?i�?i?� e�?eS� e??is� i??e?�i�?i??e?? e?�i�?e�? e��e��e?? e��e??e??eS� e?? i��i��i??e��. i��e?�i?�i?? 2016e�� e??i?�e�?e?�i�?, i�?e��i?�i��e?? i��e�� 2e�? e��e��e?? e?�i??i??e?? i�? e��e?�e??i?�e?�i��i?�i��e?? e??e�? e��e��e�? i?�e��i�?e�?i?� 5i??10e�?i�?, i��i?�i�?e�?i?� 4i??40e�?i�?i??e��. 7i??e�?i�?i?? e�?eS� e��e��eS� 1i��i�? i??i?? 10.1%e?? i?�i�?i�? 23.4%i??e��. i??i�� i��i�?iz?e??e?�i�?i?? i??e?�i�?i??e?? e�Zi?? i��is�i�? 30a??40e?�e?� i�?i�� i�Si?� e?�i��i?� i�?i��i�?e��. e��e��i�?e�? 7i??e�?i�?a??1i��i�? e��e��i�?i�? e��e��i?? i��e�?i?? 40e?�i?? e??is�e�� 19.2%e?? e��iz? e�Ze?� 30e?�e?� 15.3%e?? i�?i�� i�Se��. 1i��i�?i?� e�?i�?i�?eS� e��e��i�?i�?eS� 40e?�i�� 30e?�e�� e�?e�? 13.7%, 7.6%e?? i�?i��i�?e��. e�?eY�e�? i?? e��e��i�? i?�i�?e??eS� 30a??40e?� e��e��e?? i�?e?� i??iz?i�� e??i?�i�?e?? i�?is?i�?A�i��e�� i��i??iS? i?�e�� i��i�?e��e?? i?�i��i�?i??e?? e��i�?e??e�? i��i�?iz?e??i?� e�?e�?i�?e?�eS� i�?i��eS� i�Si�� e??i??e��. i�?e�?i?� e?�e�?i�? e��i��e�? iz?i��i?� i��i?? i?�e��i�? e?� e??i??e?� e�?e�?i??e��. e��e��i?? i��e�?e?�e?� e��e��e�? i??iz?i�� e??i?�i�?i?� 30i�? e??e�?i?? 7i??397e�?i�?i??e?? e��iz? e��i�?e?� 30e?�e�� 2i��1i??769e�?i�?, 40e?�e�� 3i��669e�?i�?i??e?? i��i?? i?�e��i?? 3i��1i??142e�?i�?i?� i�?is?i�?e��. 50e?�i�� 60e?�eS� e�?e�? 3i��6i??457e�?i�?, 3i��3i??393i��i�? i??i��i??i�?e��. e�?e�? KBe��e??i?�i��i?? i��e?�i�? i�?is? i��i??iS? i?�e�� i��i�?e��eS� 24i?? i?�iz� 59.5aZ?(18i?�)e�� 2i��5i??e�?i�?(3.3aZ?e�? 1i??389e�?i�?), 79.33aZ?(24i?�)e�� 3i��3i??i��e�?i�?i??e��. 30e?�e�? e�? i??i�?eS� e��i�� iz?i��i?� e??e�? e??i�?e??i��e?� e?�i�?i?? i��i??e�? i�?is? i�?e�?i�? i�?i?� i��i??iS? i��i�?e?? i��e?�e�� iz?e��e?�, e��e��eS� i��i��i?? e�?e��eS?i�? i�?i??e��. i��e�� i��i??iS? i?�e�� i��i�?e��eS� 59.5aZ? 1i��3i??i��e�?i�?, 79.33aZ? 1i��7i??i��e�?i�?i??e?? i�?is?e??e��eS� e��i?� i??i��i??i��e�?, i��e��i?� i�?is?e??e�� e��e��i�?e�?i?? e��e��. 2016e�� i��e��e��e��i�?e�? i?�e�� 5i??10e�?i?� e�?i�?i�?eS� i�?A�e?�eS� i�?is?i?� i�?i�?i�?e�? is?i��e?? e??e?�e?� i��e?�i??e��. i��e�?e��e��i?� e??e�?i��i��e�?i?? i?�i�? e�?ez�i?� i�?i�?e��e��e�? e��e�?i?? i?�i?�i?? e?�e??i�? i��e?�e?? i?�ez? i��is�i�? i��e??i??i?�i?� e??e�?iz? e?�e��e??e?� i?�i�?i�?e��. e�?e?�e?? i��is�i�?e�? i??i�?i?? i�?e?�e?? i?�i��e?� i�Si?� e?? i��e�?e?? e?�e??i�� i?�i?�i?? i??i�?i�? e�?e?�e?? i�zi�� i?�i�?i�?e?� e�?e�?i??e��. e?? i��e??i??i?�i?� i??e?? e��e��i�� e??is�i�?eS� e?�i??i?? e�?i�?i??i�� i?�i?� i��e??i??i?�e??e��eS� e?�iz?e?�(i�?e??e??) i?�i?� iz�i�?i??e�? iS�i�?i??e��iS� iS�i�? iz�i�?i?? i��e??i??i?�i?� e?�e��i�?e??eS� i??e?�e?� iz?e��. e?�iz?e?� iz�i�?i?? e??is� e�?i�?i??i��( i�?e?�(is�i??=i��i��e�?iS�) is�i??i�?eS� 21i?? i?�i�� 10i�? 30e�� i�?i?�e?�iz?i�?i�? ‘e�?A�i��i��e�? i�?e�?e�? i��i��’e?? e�?i�?i�?e��. i��i��iz?i�?i�?eS� e?�e�? e�?A�i��i��e�?i?� i��e�?i�?e?? i??e��i�?eS� i�?e��ez? iz?i��e?? e?�e??i�? i�?e��i??e��i?� i?�i�? e?�i��i??i�?A�e?�e?�i??i�?A�i??i�?e?? e�?e��e?� e�� i??i�?e��iS�, i�?i�� e�?e?�e?� i��i�? e��iS�e�� is?i??e??e��. i��i�? i��i??e?? i�ze�?e?� i�?e?�iz?e��i�?e?? e��i??i?�, i??e??, i�?e?�e?�i�?, e?�, e�?e??e?�i��, i��i�?e??, i��i��i??, i��i�?e?? e�� 400i�� i�?e?�i?� i��e�?i�?e?? i??e��i�?e��. i��i��iz?i�?i�?eS� i�?23is? e�?i��i??i?? e�� e?�e�?i�?e?� i�?e�? i�?e�� i?�i�? e��i�?e�? e�?i��e??i??i??e?? e�?i��e�?i��i�? e?�i��i�? i?�e?�iz? 17e?�i�?e?? i�?i�?iz?i?� i�?i??i�?e��.

(i??i??=i��i��e�?iS�) e��i?�e�� e?�iz? = i��i�? i�?e��i?�e?? e�zi�� i��i?? e?�e�� i??i??i�?i�? i��i�?i�� e�?i��i��i��e�� e��i��i�?e?? i�?e��e��. i�?e?� i�?e?�(e?�i?�=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�i��i�� iS?i??i�? = i??e??i?�i��i?� 19i?? e??i?�i��i��e?�i��is?i??e?? i�?e?� e?�i��e??e��e?? i?�i�� e�?i??e�?iS�(-) 0.1%e?? e?�e?�i�?e?�e?? i�?e��e?� e�?e?�i��i��i?? e??e?�i�?e��. i??e??i?�i��i?� e?? 10e�� e�?e?� e��i�� e??e��(iz?e?�e??e��)e?� e?�i�? 0% i??i��i?� i?�i��i�?e?�e?? e?�i��i�?e��. i??e??i?�i��i?� i??e?? e�? e??e?� i??i��i�? e?�i�? “i��e�?i�?e?? i��e?�i�?e?� iz?e��”e�� i??i�� e?�i�?e?? i?�i��i�?e��. e�?eS� “i�?e�? e�?eS� i��e��e?? i??i�?e?� i��i�?eS�e?�, i??i�? i�?i?? i��i?�e??e�?i?? e?�i��i??e?? i?? e??i?? i??e��i??e��”e�?i�? “i?�e�?i?? i�?iz�e??i?� e�?, i??i�? i�?iz? e??i�?i?? i��i?� i��i�?e��. i??i�? i��e??i�?iS?i�?i�? e��e?�i?� i��i�?e?�, i??e?? e?�is? e�? i??i��i�?eS� e��e?�i?� i?�iz? i?? iz?e?�e?? e?�i��i�� e??i?� e��e?? e�?e?�i?? i??e��e��”i??e??e?� e�?i�?e��. Xolani NtulieS� e�?e?�i?? e?�i�?e�?iS� i??iS?e�?e��e?? i?�ez�e?�i�? e�?e�?e?� e�?e??i�?e�?i�?, i??i�?eS� i�?e?? e�?i�?eS� e��e?�e?� i�?e��. e�?i?? e?�i�?i�?i�? i��e��i?? e?�i�?e�?iS� e�?i��eS� e�?i��i��e��i??i?? e�?i��i�� e�Zi?? e��e??e��, i��e��i?? e?�i�?e�?iS� e�? i��e�?i?�i?� i?�iz?e?? e??e��.(i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) i�?i��i?? e?�iz? = e��i??e?�eS� i��i�?e?�i��i�?i��i?�iz?is?i��(VC) ‘i��e?�i��'(TBT)i?? ‘TBT e?�e??e?? i��iz? i�?1i?? i?�iz?i?�i��’ iZ�e�?i�? 990i��i�?i?� i�?iz?i�?e��e?� 18i?? e�?i?�e��. i?? 1i??i��i�? e�?e??e?? i?�i��e??eS� i?? iZ�e�?eS� e?�e??e?? i��iz?i?? e��eS?i�? e��e�? i��i??e?? e??e?? i?�iz?A�i??i��i�?eS� e??i?� e?�i�?i??e?? i�?e?� iz?e��. i��e�?e�� i��e?�i��e?? i��e�?i�? i??ez? e?�i�?eS� i�?i??i��e�? e??e�?i�?i�?i�� e��i??e?� e?�e??e�?A�i??iZ?A�e�?e�? e�� i�?e?�iS�i?? e?�is?iz?e?? e�?e�� i�?e��i??e��. i��e�? 2016e�� e��i??e?� iz?is?i��i?? i?�i��e??e��i?? e?�i�?e?? i��iz�i�?e?� e??e��i�? e??e�?e�� i��e?�e?? e?�e��i�?e��. e��i??e?� e��i??i�� i�?e?�iz�e�?i��iz�iz?(CFO)eS� “i?? e?�i�?eS� i??i��e��A�e??e��i?? i�?e?�iS�i�? e?�i�? i�?e?�e?? i�?e?�, e??i?? eS?e�?i?� e??e�? i??i��e��i?� i��e�?e��”e??e�� “i��e?�i��i�� i�?e�? e��e�? i?�e�? e?�i��e��i?� e�?e�?i�?e?� i?�iz?i�? i?�iz? i??i?�e?? i�?e�? e?�i?? i??i??e?� i??i��i�?e?� i??e��i��i�� e??”i??e??e?� e�?i�?e��. (i�?is?A�i??i??e??=i��i��e�?iS�) e��e�?i?? e?�iz? e�?iz�i?� iS?i??i�? = e?�e�?e�? iS?eY?i�� e??e�� i��i��e��e�� i?�e�?iS�i?�i??i�?e��e?�e��(PLO)i?? i�?i��i�?i��e�?i�? i??i�� e��i??i?� i?�e�?iS�i?�i?? i??i�? i��e??i�? e??i??e?? i�?e��i??e��. e?? iS?eY?i�� i��e��eS� iz?e��e?? i??iS�e??i�?i�? e?�i�? i?�i��e?? e�?i�? i�?i�� e��i�?i?�i��iz�i??i�?(ICC)e?? i�?iz�i�� i?? iz?e��e?� ‘i��i?�’e?? e��i�?e��. 10i??(i?�i��i�?e��) i??iS�e??i�? i�?e?� i?�iz�iS�i?�e??i??iS�e??i�?i�? e��e??e�? i��i�?e?? i�?e��i??iS? PLO i��e�?i??iz?i?� i??e�� i�?iz?e��e?� is tramadol a narcotic overnight-pharmacy-4-u-viagra, overnight-pharmacy-4-u-viagra, overnight-pharmacy-4-u-viagra, overnight-pharmacy-4-u-viagra, overnight-pharmacy-4-u-viagra, overnight-pharmacy-4-u-viagra. . i?�e�?iS�i?�i??i??e��i?? e??e�� e?�e��e??e��i�� iS?eY?i�� i��e��e�� i�?i��i�?DCi�? iz?eS� PLO i��e�?i�?e?? i??i��i�?e?�e?? i�?e��eS� e?�i��i?� i��e??e��i�?e��e?� e�?i?�e��. e??e�� i��e��i?? i??eY� e��i??i?� i�?i��i?� i��i�? e??i�� i��i�?i??e��. e??e�� i��iS�iS?e��iS?i��e�?(WSJ)i?� i??e�� i?? e??i�? e��i��e?� e��e��i�?e??is?i??(NSC) e??i??e?�i?? e??i??e�?i??i?? ‘i��e��i??i??iz?i?�i??is?’ i��i��i?� i��i�? PLO i�?i��i�?i��e�?i�? i??i��i�? e?�i�? iz�iz?i?� e�?iz? e?�is?i??e??e?� e??e?�i�?e��. WSJe�� iz�i??i�? i��i��e�? i??i�?i�? e��e??e�? e??i�? e??i??e?�i?� “i?�e�?iS�i?�i??i?? i??iS�e??i�?e?? i�?i��i�?i??e?� i??e??iz?eS� i?�i?? i��i??e?? e��e��i�?e��e�? iS?eY?i�� i��i��e��eS� i�?i��i�?i�?i�? e�? i��e�?i�?e?? e?�i�? i�?i�� i�Si?� e??”i??e??e?� e�?i?�e��. e?? “e??e��i?� i��i?? is�e��i?? i??e��i??iz? e?�e�?i?? i??iS�e??i�?i?? iZ?i�? i�� e??”i??e??e?� e��i?�i�?e��. iS?eY?i�� i��i��e��e�� i�?e�? i?�i�� i?�e�?iS�i?�i??e�?e??e?�e��(UNRWA)e?? e?�e??i�? i?�e�?iS�i?�i?? e?�e�? i�?i?� i??i��i?� e?�i?� i��e�?i�?e?�e?? i�? e?� i??i�? ‘i??(e�?) i??iS�e??i�?’ e�?i��i?� e��e?�iz? i�? e??i??e��. PLOeS� i?�e�?iS�i?�i?? e?�e�?e��e�� e�?i��i?� e?�i�?e?? 1964e�� e?�i��e?? i�� e��i�?i��is?i�?i�? i?�e�?iS�i?�i??i?� e?�i�?i�?eS� i?�i�?i??e?? i��i�?e��. e??e�� i��e��i?? i??eY� e��i??i�? i?�e�?iS�i?�i??iz?i??i��e��eS� e��e�?iz? e�?e�?i�?e��. i?�e�?iS�i?�i??iz?i??i��e��eS� i??e�� i��e?�i?� e�?e?� “iS?eY?i�� i��i��e��i?? e?�i��i?� i?�e�?iS�eY?e?? i??e�?i�?e��”e�� “e�?e??i?� is�e�� e��e��i�� i��i��i?? i?�i��e?? e��i�?i?�e��eS� e�?e�?i?� i�?i�? i��iY?i?� i��i?�i�? i�?”i??e??e?� e?�i??i�?e��e?� i?�e�?iS�i?�i?? e�?iS�i��i�� ‘i��i??'(WAFA)e�� i��i�?e��. i�?e��i??iS? PLO i��e�?i??iz?e?� e??e��i?? e?�i��i�? e?�i�? “iS?eY?i�� i��e��e�� i?�e�?iS�i?�i?? i��ez?e��i�? e?�i�? i��e�?i�? i?�i��i?� i�?e?�i�?e?� iz?e��”e?� e?�i??i�?e��. i??i�? “i?? i?�i�?i�? i??i��i?� e??e��i?? i??iS�e??i�? e?�i?�e?? e??i??i�?e?� i?�i�? e��i�? i�?iS�i�?i?� i�?i??i�?e?� i?�e�?iS�i?�i??i?? e��e?? e??i?�i?� e?�e?�i�?e��eS� i??e?�e?? e??i��i��e��”e?� i??iz?i�?e��. iz�e�� 12i�� iS?eY?i�� e??e�� e?�i��e�?i?? i??e??i�?e�?i?� i??iS�e??i�? i??e?�e?? i??i��i�?e��e?� e�?i�?i�? ‘i??e??i�?e�? i��i�?’ i??i�� i?�e�?iS�i?�i??iz?i??i��e��eS� e??e��e?? i?�i??i?� e��e��i�?e?� iz?e��. e??i�? e��e�?i??eS� i�?i?�i?? iz?i�?i?? e��e�� e??i??e?? e��e�?e?�e�� i�?i?? i��i��i�?i�? i??i??i??e?? i�?i��e?? i��e?�e?? i??e?�e��e?� iz?e��. i?�i�?e?�e��i??i?? i�?iz?i?? e??iz?i�? i?�i??e�� i?�e�?i?�i?� i??e??e?� iz?eS� e??i?? iS?i��i�?i??e��. i�?e?�e�� e?�e��e�� e�?e�?i?�i��e?? e�?i?� i��i??e�?i��i?�i��i��e��i�?(i�?iz? i?�i?�)i?� i??e??i�? i?�i��i�? i�?e?� (i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�iS?is� e?�iz? = “e?�e�?i??ez� e?? e�?e??is�? i��e?? i��eS� e�?e??, e��i?�e?? i�?e��i�?e?? e�?eY�e�?eY� i??i�?e?� e�?e?? i?? iz?eS� i��i?? e?�e�? i��e�?e�� i��i�?is�.” i��e�? e�?e?�i�� iS�i?�e��i?� i?�e��e�� e�?i?? i��i��i?� i�?i�?iz? i�? e��is� i?�iz�e?�(45)i?? i��i�? i�?i�?i�? e�?e?�i�?eS� i??i�� ‘e?�e�?’i�?i�? i??i??e?� ‘e��iz�i??'(i?�iS?is� e��)i?? i?�e�?iz? ‘e��is�i�?’ i��i?� e�?i�� i??iz�e�?i?� e�?eY�e??e��. 18i?? i�?is? i?�i??e?� i�? i??iZ?i�?i�? e�?e�? i?�iz�e?�i?� “i��e??i?? i??i??i�?i�? e��iz? i��e?�i�? i�?e?�”e??e?� e�?i�?e��. “i��e??e??i�� i??i��i�?i�? i�?e�� i�? i��i�� i�� e��iz? e?�i��i?? i?� i??e��i��i?�. i?�i?� e?�is?e�� i??e?�e�?i�? i�?e?�e?? e��i?? i�?i�?i?� e??e�?e?� iz?i�?is�. i��i??i�? e�?iS? i?�i?� i??i?� i�?eS�i�� e??e??e?�i��e�?, i�?e??e?? e?�i�? e��e�� e??e�? e�Zi?� e��i?? e?�i��i??i�?e?�e??e?�is�.” i??e?? i��e�?e?? i��i�?i??e??e?� i��e?�i��e?? i�ze�?e?� iz?e��. e��i?? e�� i��i?? e?�e?�e��i?? i��i�?i?? i��iz?i??e��i�� e?�i??i�?i?� i?�e�? i??i��i??e��. e�?eS� e?�i?? i??i�?e?�e�� e�?i?�iz? i�?e�?i?� e��iz?e�� “i�?e?�i�? i�?e��i�?e?� iS?e?�i�?i�� i�Se??, i��i��i�?e?? i��e?�i�?e?� iz?e��”e�� i�?iS�eY�i��i?� e�?i��i�� e?�i�?e��.

(is?i��=i��i��e�?iS�) iz?i??i?� e?�iz? = is?i��i�?eS� i��i�? i��i?? i�?e??i?? i�?i��i�?e?� i�?e��is? e?�i�?i?� e??e�? i?? iz?e?�e?? i?�i��e?�i��i?� e�?e�?i�? i�?i��i�?e��. 19i?? is?i��i�?i�? e��e??e�? i��i�? i��i?? i?�i��e?�i��i?� i?�i��i??i��i�� is?i??i?� e?�e??i�? e�?i��i�?i��A�i�?i��, iz�e�?A�i�?i��i��e?�, e�?e��e?�e��A�i�?e?? i??i�? e??i??, e?�i??i��e??A� e��i��, i�?e??e?�e��, i�?e�? e�?e?�eS� i�?i�?i�? e?�i�? e��i?�e?� i?�i��, i��i��i�? e?�i�?e?�e�� i��e�? e�� 8e�? e��i�?e?? e�?e?� i��i��e??e��. i�?eS� 22i??e��i�� 26i??e??i�� i?�i��i??i��i��i?� i��i??i�? e�?i?� i??i�� e�?i?? i�? i��i�?iz? e?�i?�i�?e��. e�?i��i�?i��A�i�?i��e?�i��i??e??eS� e��i��e�?i?? i�?i��i�?e?? e?�i�?i?� e��e�?i�� i?? iz?e?�e?? 21i??e��i�� 26i??e??i�� e�?i��i??i��i��i?� is?i??i�? i��i?? i�? is�is?e?�e?? i�?e�? e�� i��i�?e�� e�?i�� i??i��i?� e?�e��i�?e��. e��i�? e?�i��i�?eS� e��i�?e�? i??i�?i?� i?�i�? e?�i�?A�i�?i�?e?�iS�i��e??e�?e?? i??i��e��i��i?� i?�e��eS� i�?e�?e?�iS� 39e�? e�?i�� 191e?�i�� is?i��i��i?� e��e�?eS� e��e�?i�� e?�iS�eS� i��i�?e??i�� i��iz? is?i��i�?e?�e?? i�?e��. is?i�� e?�i�?e�?i�� i��e�?e�?i?� i?�i�?i�?eS� i��i�? e�?i?? i?�i�� 9i�?e��i�� i?�i�� 5i�?e??i�� e�?i?? i��e�?i??i??iz?i�?i�? i��i��e?�iS�e?? is?i��i�?e?� e?�i�?e�?i�? i??e?� e?�e?? e�?e?� i??i��i�?e?? e�?i�?i�?e��. iz�i�?A�iz�e�? e�? i�?i��i��e?�e?? i??e��i�?e?� 24i�?e�� iz�e�? i??i�� e?�e��e?? i?�i�?i�?eS� iz�e�?i?�i��i??i��i��i?� is?i??i�?e��. i��i?? i�� i��i��i�?iz?e?? e��i��i??is�i�?i�� e�� e�Zi?� i��ez?i?? i??is�i�?eS� i�?i��e�? i�?i��i?� i�?e?�i�?e��. e?�i?� i?�i��i�?i��e?? i??i��e?�, i??e??i�?i�� e��i�? e?�i�? i��iz� i�?i�� iS?e?�i?�i��e?� i�?e��. e?? 119 i?�i��i??i��i��i?� i��i?? e?�e�� i??e�?i?� e??i��i�? e�?i?� i��e�?A�i��e?�i�? e?�e?�i�?e?� i?�i��i�? i��i�? i�?e?�i�?eS� i??i�?e?? e��i�?e��. e�? e?�i��e�?e?? e�?i??i?� e?�i�?i�? i�? e��i?�i�?iz?i?� e�?e�? i�?i??e?? i?�i?� i�? i�?e?�i�� e??e�� e?� i??i�? ‘e??i??i?? e�?’e?? i??e�� e��i��i�� e�?i?� i��e?�, i�?i�?iz?e��i?� e��i??e?? e?�e�?i�?i??e?? i��i�?i�?e��. e�? e?�i��e�?i?� “i?? e�?e�?e�� i��e�? e�?eY�e�?eY� iz?e??e?�, e??e?� i�?i��i�?e?? i�?is�e?�, e?�i��i?� e�?e?�, e�?e??i?? e�?e�?e?�e?� e�?i��i�? i�?e�?i�� i?? iz?e?�e?? e��ez�e��”e?� e�?i�?e��. i�? e��i?�i�?iz?i?� “e�?e�?e?? e��i�?i?�i�� i��i��i?� e�?i�� (i�?i��i�?i�?) ‘i?�i�� e��e�?i?� e?�e�?i�?e��’e??e?� i??e??e��”e?� i??i��i�?e��. i��i��e?? e�?i?? e�� e�? e?�i��e�?i?� “e??i�� i�?e�?e�?, eS?i��e�?e�?, e�?i�?e�?e�?e?? e?�e�?i�?i??e?? i�?eS�e?� e??e�?i??e�?e�?e?? i�?i??i�?eS� e??i?? iS?i??i�?e��”e�� “i�? e??i�� i��i�? i�?e?�i�?i??i�?e?� e��ez�e��”e�� i�?i??e�� e�?e��i�?e��. i�? e��i?�i�?iz?i?� i??i�? “e??i?? i??i??e�? i?�e?�eS�e?�a��”e??e�� “e�?e�? e�?i?? e?�e��. e��i?�e��ez?i?? i��eY� e??i�?, i�?e��e?? i�?i��i�?e?? i�?e��”e?� i��e��i�?e��. e�?eY�e�?i�? “i?� i�?i�?eS� i��e?? e��i?� e��i��i�? e??e?�i�?e��”e??e�� “i?�i?� e�?e�?e�� i�zi??e?? e�?eY�e�?eY� iz?e?? i��i??i?? e??i�? e?�i��i�� e??”i??e??e?� e�?i�?e��. i�?iz?e�� e��i�?e?� i��i�?, e�?i��iz� i�?i��, e��i�?e�?i��i�?, e��e�� i��i�? e�� e?�i�?e�?e�� iS?i?�iz?eS� e��i��i�? i��i�?e?� i�?e��e��. i�?e�?i�� i�?e??i?? i��i��iS�iS?i�� e��i�? e??e�?i��i??e?�i�� e�� i��i��i?� e�?e�?i�?eS� e�� e?�i�? e?�e?�e?�i�?e?? e��e��e�?e?� i?�i�? i�?e��iz?i?� i��e?� iz?e��. i��e�? 2i?? i�?is? i?�i��iS�i�?i�? i??i?? e��i��e��e?? i�?e�? 2018 i?�i�?i?? e?�e?�e?�i�? i��i?�i�?i?� i�? i�?eS� 16a??18i?? i?�i�?i?? e?�e?�e?�i�? i��i?�i??e�� i��i��e?� i��i��i�?e��. 16i?? i?�i�� 10i�?i�?eS� i?�e?�i��i�?i�? e��i�? 5e?�i�� e?�i?�i�?e??, 17i?? i?�i�� 1i�?i�?eS� e?�i��i�� i??i�?iz?i�?i�? i�?e??e?? i�?e�?i�?eS� iz?i?? i��i?�i�?i?� i�� i??i��i??e��. i?? e?�i��i�? e��e?? i��i?�iz?i?? 2.6%i�? i�?e�?i�?eS� 6e�?e?�i?� i??e??i�?e��. i??e?�e��e��i?? i?�e�� i�?e�?i??i��i�?i?� i�� 408e�?i�?i??i�?i??e�?, i??e??e��e��eS� 1i??950e�?i�?i??i�?e��. i��i??i?? i?�e�� i�?e�?i?� 411e�?i�?, 1i??205e�?i�?i??i�?e?�, i?�e�� iz�i��i?� 1i��5i??e�?i�?e?? 10i��3i??e�?i�?i??e?? i?� i�?i??e�� iz?i�?e��. i??e??e��e��eS� i??e?�e��e��i�? e?�i�? e�ze??i??e�� e�Zi�?e?�, i??i??e??i?� e?�i??e?� e��i�?e��. i��e?�i??e�?i?� i��i?�i�?i??e�? i??e�� 21i?? i?� i??e�?i?� e��i�� e?�i�? i��e?�i?� i??i�� e?�i??iz?e?? e?�i��e??e�? 10i�� e�?i�? 9i��e��e??i�� i��e?�e��eS�e��. i??e�?i?� e��i�� 25i?? i��e?�e??e��, i??e��i�?e�? i��i�? i��i??e?? i??i�? 21i?? i��e��. e?�i��e��eS� i��e?� i��e��e�� i��i�? e?�i��e??i�� i�Si?� i��i?� i��e?�i�? e?�i�?i�?eS� e�?iz?e��i�?i��e?? e?�e�? i��e??e?? e??e�� i�?e�?i�?e?�e��e?� e�?i?�e��. i��e?�i??e�? i��i?�e?�i?� i��e�?(96.7%)i?? e��iz? e��i�?e?�, i�?is?(88.6%)i?? e��iz? e��i??e��, i??e??e?�i?� i�?is?(5.1%)i?? i�?e?�, i��e�?(0.9%)i?? i�?i��i?�e��. i��e��eS� i��e?�i??e�? i��e?� i��i�? e?�i??e��i�?iz?i�� i�?i�?i�?i??i��i�? e?�i�? i?�i��e?� i�?e��. i��e?�i?? 90i?? i??i?? e��i�?i�?i�? i??e??i�?eS� e??is� i��e?�i??e�? i��e?�i?� i��i��i�?i�? i�?i��e�?, e�?e�� e?�i??e��i�?iz?e�� i�?e��i��e�?i??e?? i�?e��i�?e��e�? i�?i�?i�?i??i��e�� i�? e??e?� iz�e��i�?i�� i�Si??e�? i�?iz�e�� i��e��e�� i��i??e??i�� i�SeS� i�?e��i��i?? iz?i�?e��. e?�i??e��i�?iz?i?? i�?e��i��e�? i��e??i?� i�?i�?e��e?� i�?i�?i�?i??i��i?? e��e�? iz�e�� i��e��e?? i�?e?�i�?e?�e?? i�? e?�e??, 90i?? i??i?? e��i�? i??e?? i��i?? e?�i??e��i�?iz? 233e?�e?? i�?i�?i�?i??i�� 393e?�i�? e?�i�?i�?eS� i??e�? i��e?�i?� i��i��i�?e?�e?? i�?e��. (i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) i??i?�i�� e?�iz? = i??e�� 1i�?e?�i?? iZ�i?�e?? e�?e�? e�?e??e�?i??i?? 18i?? i?? i��e?� ‘i�?e?�i?? i??e��’i?� e�?i�?i�?e��. i�?i�?i�� e??iS�i?�e��i�?i��e??i??e??i�? e��e??e�? i?? i��e?�i?� i��e�? 8i�� e�? i��e?� ‘i??e�?e?�’i�? i??i�? e�?e�� e�?i�? e?�e�?i�?eS� i��e??i??e��. i?? e??i?� e�?e?�i�� e?�e�?i?� e�?e?? e?�i��i??eS� i?�e?�e��i?? e?�e?�i?? e??e?�, is�e��e�� e�?ez?e?? i�?e�?e�� e?� e�?e�� e��i�? i?�i�� i�Si?� i�?e?�i?? i??e��i??e??e?� i�?i?�i�? e�?ez?e��.

e��e�? i??i�� e?�i�?e??e�� e?�i��e�?i??e??eS� i�? e??i�?e?? e�?iz�i?? e?�i��e�?i?? e�?i?? i?�i��i?� i�?eS�e��. 2007e�� e??e�?i?? ‘e�?ez� i��’i?� e�?i�?i�? e�?i�?e?? e�?e�?i?� i�� e?�i��e�?i?� e��i��i�?e?? e�? e?�i��e�?i??, 11e�� e�� i�?i�� i?�i��e??i�? i?�e??e��. e��i?�i?� i��i��e�? e?�i�? e??e??e?? i�?e�?e?�i?? e��i?� e??iS�i?� i��e�?e?�i�?, e��e�?e??i�? i?�e??eS� i�?e??e�� e?� e�?e??e��. i�?e�?e?� i��i�?eS� i��i��iz? e�?i�?i��i��i?� e�?i?�i�?e?� iz?e?� e�?e�?i??e��. e�?(a??)e�?e?? i��i�?e�� e�?i�?i�?eS� i�?e�? i?�eY? e��i?�e?�e?? e�?i??i�?e?? i??i�?i�?i?? i�?e�?i�? 1930e��e?�i�? e?�e�?i�? e??iS�i?�e?�i?? i?�i�?i?? e?�e?? i??i??e��i��e?? i�?i�� e��e?�i�?i��eS� i�Si�?i??e�?, e�?i?? i??eY� e�?i?� i��e�? i??i??e��i�� i��e��i?? e�?e�?i?� e�?e��e��. e�?e?? e��e?? i��i��i�? i�ziz?i�?e�� EU i��i��e��i�� i??e�?i?? i?�eY? e��e��i�?i�? ‘e?�e?�i?? i�?’i?? e?? e�?i�?i?� i�?e?�e�? e��i??e�� e?? e�?e�?iz?e?�i?� “e??iS�i?�e?�i??eS� i??i??e��i��i�� i??i??e��i��i??, i??i??e��i��i??e��i?? e?�i?� i��e?�i�?i?? i??i??e��i�� i��e��e?? e??is�i�?e?�i�? i�zi�? iz�i?� i��i�?i�?e�? i�� e??”i??e??e?� i?�i??i�?e��. i??e??i�� e�?i?�: http://asianetnews.net/view-attachment?attach-id=318855 i�?e��e�?i?� e?? i��i�?i?? i�?i�? e�?i�?is?i�?i�? i?? e��i?� i��i?�eS� e�?iS? e?�i??e??e�� i??e�?i?� i�?e?�i�?e��. i??i�? e?�e��i?? e?�e��e??e��i?� i�?e��e�? iz�iz?i�? e?�i?�i�?i�� i�Se?� ‘i��e��i??i?? i�?e?? e�?e?�i�?e?� e�?e??e?? i��ez�i�?e��e�? e??e�� i�?i�?i?� i��is�i�?i�� i�Si��i�? i�?eS� e?? i��e�?e��’, ‘i??eY� i??i?� iz?e?? e?�i��i�?e�?eS� e??i?� i��e�? i�?i�?i�? i??i?? e??i?� i��eS�i��’, ‘i�?e��i�? e�� e�?iz?e�?e�? i�?e?� iz?eS?e??? e?�e�?i�? i��e��i?� i��e��i�?e��e?� e�?i?�(i��e��) e??i?? e??eS?e??’e�� i?�e?�i?� i??e��i�?e��e?� iz?i?�i�?e??eS� i��i�?e��. i�?iZ?, i�? e?�e��e??i?� e?�i��i��i??ez?e�?i�? e??e��i?� i�?i�?i�?eS� e??i?� e??e��e�?e?? i??e��e�?i?� e��e��i�?e?� i?�i�? e??i??e?? e��i?� e??e�� iz?i??e�?i?? i�?i�?e??i��e��i?�eS� e�?eY� i??ez�i?� i�?e?�i�?i�� i�Si�� e??e��i?� i�?i�?i�?i�� i�Si�?e��e?� i��e?�i�?e?�e?� i�?e��. i�?e?� (i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�iS?is� e?�iz? = e��i?? iz�i��i�? i��i��e�?i�? i?�e��i�� i�?e�?. is?e?�i�� e??i?� e��i�? e?�i��e�? i�� e?�i??i?� i��i�� e��e��e?�, i�?eY� i��e?�i��i�? e�?i�? e?�i?�e�� i??i??i?? i��ez?. is�e�� i??i��e�� e�?e��eS� i?�i��i?? i��i?�i??e��. e�?eY�e�? i??i�� ‘e?�i�?ez�’i?? ‘i�?e?�i?�'(i��i��e?? e��)i??e�? ‘e?�e?�i?? i�?’ ‘e��i?�i��'(i��e??e�� e��) e��i?� i?�i��e�� i?�i��i�? i�?e�?e�? i??iz�i��e??. 10i�� e�� i�� i??i�� e??i��i�? i�?iz� e�?i�? e��e�?i�?e�?i�?i�? i�?e�? i�?i��i�?e?? i�? i?�i��eS� i??i��A�e�?e??e�?e�� i?�i�� i??e??i��e?? e�� e�?i??e�?e��e?� i�?e?�i?� i��i�?e��. i�?eS?e?� i�?e�� i?�i��e�?i?? i??e��i��e�� e?? e?�e�� i��i??e�?i�? e�?i?� i�ze�� e��e��i�� i�SeS� i?�i��eS� i?�i��i�?i�? e�?i�?i??i�? e�?e??i�?e��. e�?eY�e?�e?� iz?e?? iS?i��i?? i??i?� i??i�� iz�e??e?? i?�i�? e??i�?e?? i�?e??i�? iz?i?� i??e?� i?�i��e?? i�?i�? i�?e?�e�? e??i?� i??i�? i??i��e�� e?�e��e��i??e��. 10i�� e�?e?� i??i��i?? ‘i��i??i�?i??’ i��i�? i?�i��e�?i??e��. e�?eY�e�? e?�i?? i?�i��e�?e??eS� e?�i?� e��e��i�?e��. iz�i??i�? i�?i�? iz?e�?i??e�? i��iz? e��e?�i??e?? e??i�?i?�e��eS� e?�i?�i��, e�?i??i��e??i?� iz?e�?i�?eS� i��i��i�?i?? i��i�?i?� i??i�? e��i�?i�?e��. i?�i��i�?i?? i?�i�� e??iS�i?� iS�i?�e��i�? i?�e??i??i�?e?� iz�e??e?? e��i??i�� i�Si?� e??i?� e�?e?� e��i�?i�? e��i�?i��e??i�� e??i��e��. i??e?� i?�e??e??e?? e��e??i�?i�� i�Se?� e�� e?? e�?e?�e??i?? iz�e??e?? e�?e��i�?e?� e?Si?� e��i?� e�?e?�e?? e?�i��i�?eS� e��i��i?� i��i??i?� i�?e��. iz?i��i?? i??i��e?�i�?i?�e?? i�?e��i??e�?e?? e?�e��e??i?? i�?e?? i?�i�� iS�i?�e��i?? i??e??e�� ‘e?�e��e?? e??i??iS?’i�� e�?i??e?? i??e?? i�?e??iz?e?�i?? i��i�? i��i??i?? i??i�?i??e?? e�?i?�e?�i?? i��i��i??i?� i�?e�? e??e�� e?? i?? i��e?? e?�i�� is�e��e��i?? e??e??i�?i�? i�?i�?e??e?� iz?e��. ‘e�?e?�i?�i?? iZ?i??i??i�� e�?i?�’i?� e�?e�? i??i��i�� i�?i?�i�?eS� i??e�? e?�i?? i��i��i?? i�?i��i�?e?�, i??i?? i??e�� e��i�?i?� e�?i?�i�?eS� e?�i��e�? i��is?i�? e?�i�?i��e?� i�?i�? i??e�� e?�i?? e??i?�e��. i�?e?�iz�i??i�?eS� i��i��i�? e?�i��e��e��iz?eS� i??e??i�?i�� i�SeS� e??i?? i??e��eS� e?�i��i?� e�?e�?e��. i�?i??iz?e��i?? i�?e��i�? e�� e?�is?i??e?�, e�?i??i?? i��i��e?? i??i��, i�?e?? e��e?? e��i??e��i?? i�?e?�i�? i??i��e??i�? i�?e��eS� i��is?i??i�?i?? e?�i��e?? e�?i??i�? e?�i��i??e��. i��e�� i?�i�?e?� e�?i��e��i��e��. e��e�?i??i��e�� e�?i�? ‘i�?iz?i??i??’i??e??eS� e�?i?? is?iz?i�?e��. ‘e��i�� i�?eS� iz?e�?i?? i�?i��e�?eS�e��’eS� e�?i??i�?e��. e?�i��e�?i?? e�?i�?e�? i��e?�i?�i��e�� i�?e?�e?�i�?i�? e??e�?e�� e?�e?�i�?e��. e?�e�� i?�i?� e?�e��i?? i��i�? e�?i��e��. iz�e�?i?� e��e?� i?�i�? i�?i�? i�� i??i?? i�?e�?i?? i��e�?i��e�?, e?�i�?i��is?e�� i�?i��i�? e??i��e��e��e?�e?? i?�i�?e�?i�� iz?i??e?? i��i��iz? i??e��e??i�?i��eS� i??e?� e�?i�� i�?e�?e��. e??i��, i??e�?i?? iz?e��e?� i?�i�� i??i��a��”i??i��e?�e?? e��e?? iz�e�? e��eS?i��””i��e��e?�i�� i??i�� i??i��i��e?? i�?e��i�?a��i??e�?i?? i��e��e?�i�� i��i�?e?� i�?e?�i�� e??” i��iz?eS� i??e?? NHK e��e��i��e?? i�?e?�i�? e��i�?e?�e?� i��e�?e��e��. i��i�� 20i��e�� e�?i�? e�?i??i�? i��e��i?� 20i�?e?� i�?e?� e?�e�? i�� i�?e�?i?? e?�iS?e�? i��iY?i?� i�?i�� e??i?� i��i�?eS�i��, i��iY?i?� e?� e??e�� e??e�? i??eS� i��i�?eS�i��e?? i��e?�i�?e��. e�?e��e?� i�?e??i�? e?�i�? i?�i�?i�� e�?i��i?? e?�e�?i?? i�?i??i??i�?i??i?� e??e��e?� e?�e�?i?? e�?e?�e??i�� i�Se?�e?? i�?e?� i?�i�?i�� e?Siz�i��eS� e?�i��e�� i��is�i�?i?� i��i??i�?e��. e�?i�? e??e��i�?i�� e��e��iz?e?�i?� i��iz�i�? e??e?�iS? S.e�?e�?e�?e??e?? e?�e??i�? e?�e??, e��i??, i��iz? e�� 13e?�i?? i�?e�?i??e?? i�?i�?e?�, e?�iS?e�?i�?i�� i?�is�i??e?� i?? i�� i�?e�?iz?e?�i?� i��i��i??e?? 13e?�i?? e?�i�?e�?i?? i�?i�?i�?e��. e?�i�� i�?e��iz?e��i?� e�?i�? iS?e??e?? e?�i��e�?i?? 1945e�� 9i�� i??i�?e?? i??i�?i?? e??e�? iZ?i��e?? i��i��i�?e?? e��i��e��i�� e?�iS?e�?i?� e��i�? i�?e??i��e?? e�?e��e��eS� i��ez�iS�i�? e�?e?�i�?e?�e??e�? i��iY?i?� e��i?� i?? iz?i�� i�Si�?i?�e?? e??i�seS�e��. i��iY? e�?i�? e?? e��e�?e�� iz?e�?i��i?� i�? i??iS�i�� i?�i??eS� i??i�? e?�i�? “e�?i�? e?? e��e�?e��i�? i??i�?e?? i??i�?i?� e�?e?� e?�iS?e�?i??e??eS� e��e��e?? i�?e?� iz?eS� i��ez?i?�i�? i��i?� e??”i??e??e?� e�?i�?e��. e??e��i?? i��i�?i�� i??i��i�? e�?e�?i?? e�?i��i�?e��eS� e??i??e��. e�? i�?eS? e�?e??e�� i??i�?i�?e?? i�?e�?e?� i?�i��i��i�� e��i�?i?� e??i?�i�?eS� i��e?? is�e��e�� i�?e?�i�� e�?i�? i��i??e��. i�?e?�e��iS� iZ?e?�. 224i??. 1e�?5i??i�?.

i?�i??i?� i��i??i�?i�? i�?e�� i��i??i?� e��e??i??e?? e�?e�?i?� e�?e�� i��i??e�?(1916~2010) i��e��i?� i??i��eS� i??i�?i�?e��. e�?i?? iz�i�?i?? e?�i��e��i�?e?? e??e?�i�?i??e?? i�?e��i��e?� i�?iz�i�? e??i?� 13e�� i��i??e��. 2005e�� 11i�� e??e?� is�i??i?? i??i?? e??i?�e?�i�?i�? i�� i��e�� i��iz�i��i?? i�?e��e?� iz?i�?e��. i��i?? e��i�?i?� i��i�? is�i��iz? e?�e�? e??e?�e?? e?? e�?e�?i?� i�� e?�i��e�?i?� e�? iz?e��i�?i�? e��e�?i?� e?�i��i�? e�� e?�iS�e?? i?�e?� e??i?�e?�i?� e��e�?i�?e��. i��i�?is?e?? e?�ez?i�? e�? i�� e?�i��e�?i?� ‘i�?e��i??e?�’e??eS� iz�i�?i?� e��e��i�?e?? i�?i�?i??e�? i��i??i�?e�� e�?e�? i�� i?�i��e?�i�? e�? e??i?? i��i�?e��. i??i�? e�? i�� e?�i��e�?i?� e��i?� e�?e�?i?� e��i�? e�?e��i�� e??i?� i?�i�?e��. e�?e��e?? i?�i??i�? iz�i�?i?? e??e?�i��e?? e�?i�?i�? i�?e??i?� e�?i?� e��e?? 7m, i�?e?? 2.8mi?? 1i??i??i�?e�� i?�i�� ‘i��i??i��’i??e��. i�?iz� e?�e�� 4e�?i��i?� e��i?? i��i��e?? i?? iz�i�?i?� 2006e�� 3i�� i?�i��e?� e??e?� i??i��i��i�? e�?e�?i??e�? i??e?�e�� i��e�� e�?i�? e��e�?i?�e?�e??i?�e?�i??e?? i?�e??i��e�� e?�i��i??e??e��i�� e��i�?i??e��. i??i�� e�?iz�i?? e?�i��e�?i?? i��i�?e?? i��e�?i�? i��i??e�? e��i�? i?�i��e?�e?? e��i�?i�?e�?i�? i�?e��i?? i??e?�i?� i��i��i�?i?�e��. i??i�� e?�e�?i�? i�� i��e��i?� i�?i��i??i�� i??e?�i�? ‘i��is?i�?’i?� i��e??i�?e��e?� i�?e��. e�? i�� e?�i��e�?i�?e?? e�?e�?i?� i?�i�?e��eS� i??i?�e?? ‘i??i?? i??i?�e��’e?? e��i??i�?iz? e��ez?i�? e??i??i��i�? i��e��iz?i??e�?i??iz?e��e??e��i�� e�?i?� i��i�?e??i?� i�?e?�e?? e��i�� e?�i�?eS� e�� i�?e?? e??e??e?? i�?e?�e��i�?e?� e�?e�?i??e��. e�?i?? i��i??i��i�?i?� e��i��iz?e�? i��i?�i�?i?? ‘e??i??e?� e??i??’i�? e��e??i��e?? i�� i��e��i?� “e?�i��e�?i?? e�?e�?i?� i?�e??eS�e?� i�? i?� i��e��e�� i�?e�� iz?e?�eS?e??”e?� i�?e�?i�?e?�eS� i�?e��.(i�?e?�i��e�?e��[i��ez�iS�]=i��i��e�?iS�) i??e?�i?� iS?i??i�? = i?�i�? e??e��i��iz?i��e??e??i��(LPGA) i?�i�? i�?i�? e�?i��e�� e��i??i�� e?�is?i?? i�?e?�i�� i��i�?i�?i��(i??i??e?? 385e�? e��eY�)i�?i�? i?�i�?i��(27)i?? i?�e�� 4i�?e?�i??e?? i�?e�?i�?e�� e?�e?� 4i?�e?? e?�e??i�?e��. i?�i�?i��i?� 13i??(i?�i��i�?e��) 18i�� e??e?�e?? e�?i?? e�� “i?�e�� 60e?� i?�i??e?? e?�e??i�?e�? i?�i?� i�?iz�i?? e?? e��e��. e??e?� e�? e�?e�� iz?i�?i��e�? i?�i?� i?�, i?�i?� i??i?�e?� iz?i�?e��. i�?i��i�?i?? e??e?�e?? i�?e��”e?� e�?i?�e�?i?� e�?i?�e??e��. (i??iS�i?�e�?=i��i��e�?iS�) i�?i��e�? iS?i??i�? = i�?e��i�� e�?i�?e��e?? i�?i�?i�? e�?e�� e��i�?i?� e?�e��e�� i??e?�i�? e��i?�e?? i�?i��i��e�? e?�i��e�? i��e�?i?? 7e�� e�?i�? i��e��i��e��e?? i??e??e��. 16i??(e��e�?iS�i?�iS� i?�i��i�?e��) i?�i�� i�?e��i�� i��e�� e?�i��i��i��i�?i�? i��e��i��e��e�� i�?iz�e??e��. i?�i�? i�?e��i?� i?�i�� 7i�?e��i�� 12i�?e��i??e��. i��i�� e?�i�? i?? 1e�?8i??478e?�i?� e?�eS� i??e?? i��e��i�?eS� i?? 4e�?e?�i?? iz�i��e??i�?e��e?� e��i?? i��e�? i��i��i?? e??e?�i�?e��. i�?e��i�� i��e��i?? i��e��i��e��eS� e�?i�� i??e?� 2011e�� 12i�� i??i�� i�? 7e�� e�?i??e��. i??e?? i��e��i��e��i�?i�? i��i�?e??eS� i��i�� e?�i�?i�?e??eS� iz�e�? i��i��i?� is?e??i�?i??e?? i??i��i�� i?? iz?e?�e?? i��iz�iz?e??e�� e?� i?� e�?i�?i?? i??i�?i��e��e?� i��e�? i��i��i?� i��e?�i�?e��. i?�iz� i�?e��i�� i��e��eS� e�?i�� i??i�� i�?e��i�� i??i��i?? 3e��i?? 2e��eY�i?� i��i�?i�?e��. eY�i�?i��e��i?� e��i�? i��i?� i��i��e�? i��e�?i?� e�?i�?e�� i??e��e�?i??(a�z)e?? i�?i�?i�? e�?e??i�� e�?e�� i��i��i?� e?�e��e�� i??e?�i�?e��. e�?e��i�� e�?e?�e�� e�� i??i��i?? i�? 3e��i?? 1i�? i�?e�?i�?eS� i��i��i?� e�?i�� i??e?� i�?e��i��e��i?? i?�i??i�? i�� i?�e??e�? i�?e�?i?? e�?(a?S)iz?i??e��i��i?� i?�i��i�?i??e��, e??e�� e�� i??e�?i?? e�?iz?i?�i�? ‘i??iS�ez?e��e��'(IS) e?�i�? e��i�?e?�e�?e�� e��e?�e�� e��i??e??e��. e�?e?�e�� e��e??i��i�� i��iS?i?�i��i�?e?� e??e��i?? i??e��i�?e��. i�?e��i�� i��e��eS� e�?i��i?? i�?i�?i??e?? 2014e��e?? 2016e��i�? e�?e�? e?�i��e?? i??i��i?� i��i�?i�?e��. — i��i��e??i��i?? i�?e��i��i??e??e�?. a�? e�?i��e??e��e?� i�?i��i??e��. i??e�?e??i?� i?�i�? i��i�?i?? i??iz?e��e�� e��i?�i�?e��. e?�e?�e?�e?�e��i�� i??e�?e??i?? i��is�i?� e??e��e��. i??e�?e??i?? e��iz? e�Zi?? e��i??i�?eS� i�?is?i�? e�?i�?A�i��i??A�e��i�?e��eS� i??e�?e?? i�?i�?i?? i�? e?�e?� i��e��. i??e�?e?? i��i��i��i�?i��i��i?� i�?eS� e�?e�?i�?e�?iz�e�?e�?i��e?� i??e�?e?? i�?i�? e?�i??i?? i��i��i?? e��e��. e�?e�?i?? e?�i�?e��e�� e��i��i��iz? iz�e�? i??i?� 10%i?? i??e�?e?? i�?i�? e?�i??i?� 15%e?? i?�e��e?�e��e?� i�?e��. e?�i??i?� e?� i?�e��i�? i�?e��. i??e�?e?? i�?i��i?� i?�i�? i��i�?i�? i��i�?i?? i��is�i�?e��. i�? i??e?? 2015e�� e??ez?i��e?�i��iz? i��i�?i�?e?�e?? i��i�?i�?e�?i�? e?�i��i??i�?e?? i��i�?i�?e?? e?�is�i��i�?e??i?� i��i�?e��. i?? e?�is�i��i�? i�?e?�i?? i??i��e?? i??e�?e??i?� i��is�i�?e��eS� i��i??e�� i?�i��iz? i��i�?e��i�?e��. e??ez?i��e?�i��iz? e��iz�e?� i��i�? 10%e?�i�? e??e�?e?� iz?e��. e??ez?i��e?�i��iz?i?� i??e�?e??i?? i�?i��i�? e�?e??i�?e�?i?? 30% e?�i?�i�?i�? i�� 10~50e�? i�?i?� i�?e??i�?e�? e�? i�?i??e�?i?? i��i�?i�?eS� i�?e?�e��. i?? i��iz?i�?e?�e?? iz? i�?is�i�?e�? 4e��e�� i�?e?� 5i??e�?e��eY� e??i?� i?? iz?e��. i??e�?e??i?? i��i��i?� e?�eS� i?�i?� i�?e?�i��e�? 2016e�� e��iz�e?�i?? 12.8%, 2017e�� 10.4%i�? e�?e??i�?e��. e��iz�i�� e�? i�?i�?e�� e?�iz?i�?e?� i��e?�i�?i�? i�� i�?e??e�� e�Ze?� e�?e�?i??e��. i??i??i?� i��e��e�? i??e??e?�, i�?i��e?� e�� e?�i�? i��i��i??e?? i��e?�i�? i�?e??i?� i�?i?� e�?e?� i�?e��i��i?? e�Ze��. i??e�?e??i?? e�?iZ?i?� e??i�? i�� i?? iz?e?�e?? i�?e?�e?? i��e?�i�?i�? i�?e��. iz�e?�i�?i?? “e�?e�? i��i��i�� i??e?� e�?e�?i�? i??i??” i�?e?�, i�?e?�e�?e?? i?�e��i�? e??e�?e?�i�?e?�i�� 1972e�� e�?iS�i��i��i�� iS?i??i�? i??i?? i??e?�i??e?? i�?e?�e�?e?? e�?e?�i�?e?�e�?e??, i��i?? i??i�? i�?i��a��i��e?? e��i?�A�i?�i�?i�? e?�e??e??eS� i��e?? i��i��i�?e?� i�?e?� i��i��i�? i��e?�eS� i��i��i??e��. iz?eS� e�?e?�e??e?? i��i�� e?�i��e�?iz?i�?e?? i��e��i�?e?� e�?e�?i??e��. e�?e�?e?? i??i?�i?� i?�i��i??e??eS� i��i�?e�� e??is? e�?e�� e�Zi�?e��. i�?e?? e��i?� e?�i??i?� e??e�?i�?e??, iz?eS� e�?e?�e?? i��i�?e??e?� e�?e�?i??e��. i??e�� i��i�?e��i?� e�?i?? e?�i?� e?�e??e?� e�?i??i�?e��. e�?eY�e�? i??i?�i?� e�?eY�i�� i�Si�?e��. e�?e?? i?�i?�i�?e�? i��e�?e?� iz?e?�i�?e?? i??i?� e�?i?� i�?i�� i�Si??e��e??e?� i??e�?i�?e?� e�?e�?i??e��. i�?e?�

(e??e�? 2018e�� 9i�� 19i?? PRNewswire=i��i��e�?iS�) Menarini Ricerchee�� 20i??(e�?i??) i�?60is? SIC(Italian Cancer Society) i��e?� is?i??i�?i�? i??e??is? iz�i?? i�� e?�i??i��e?? e�?i�?i�� i??i��i??e��. i??i�? e��e??e�?, 5-Azacytidinee?? Decitabinei?� i??is�i�? i��i�� i??e??e�� i��eY� e��i�� e?�i�� e??i??i�� e��i??e?�(Acute Myeloid Leukemia, AML) i�?i?�e?�i�?i�? iz�i?? i��e?? MEN 1112/OBT 357i?? ADCC(Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, ADCC) iz�is�i?� e��i??e��e?� i�?e��. i��e��e��is? i??i��i?� e�?e�?i�?e?� iz?i�? i??i?? e??i?� i�?eS� i��ez?e��i??e??e�? i�? e??i?� i�?i��e?? e�?i�?e��. i��i�?e?? i��i�?e�?i��i?� i�?eS� e??i?� i��e�? e�?i�?i�? i��i��e�? e?� iz? i�?e?� e??i?� iz�i?�i�?e��. i��e??i�� i??i��e�?i?� i��e�? i�?i?�e�?i��e�?i�?e?? e��eS� e??i�? iz�i?� e��eY�e��e�� i�?e�?i?� e?�e��e��e?� iz?e��. Menarini Ricerche Announces New Positive Results in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines for MEN1112/OBT357 at the 60th Annual SIC Meeting a�? SF i?�iS�iS?i??e?? i?�i��i�?i�� = i??i��i?�e?�e��i??iz? i�?i??i?? i�?i?�e?� e??i?�e?� e��i�?e��e�?e?? e�?i??i?? i��i�?. ‘i�?i?? SF i��e�?e��i??i�?i??e?? i�?iZ?e??eS� ‘is�e�� i�?i�? i?? e??ez?”e??eS� e��i�?e?? e��i�?e��. i��iz?eS� 1970a??90e��e?� i�?e��e?? i??e??i?? SF i��e�?e��i??i�?i�? e?�e??e?�e?? e��i??e?�e��. iz�i�?i?? i��i�?e?? i�?e?�e��i�? e�?e?? i�?i�?i�? e��e�?i�?i??e?? e?�i��i�?e?� e�?i��i��is?i��i�? i�?e�?i??e?? iz�i�?i?� i�?iZ?e??e��. i?? iz�i�?e��i?? i�?e�� e??ez?e?? e??e??i�?eS�i��, e�?e?� i��is?i�? iz�iz�e?? e�?i�?e��i?� i�?e�� i�?i??e?? e�?i??e??i�?eS�i��, i??e�?i?? iz�i�?i�? e��iz?i�?eS� iS?ez?iS�i??e??A�i?�iS�iS?i??e?? i��is?i?? e??iS�i?� e�?i��i?� i�?i��i�?eS�i�� i??e��i�?e��. e�?i��i??i?�. 324i??. 1e�?4i??i�?. e??e�� e�? e�?i�? i��e�?e��e��i?� e�?i�?i?? e?�i��i�� i��i?? i�?i�?i?? e?�e?�i�? e??i??i�� e?�i�?e��eS� e�?i?�i?� i??e?? e�?e��i�?e��. e??e��i?? i�� i��e?� is�e��e�� i��i?�e??i�� i�Si�?e��eS� e??i??e��. e�?eY�e�? ‘i��i��i��’i�? e?�i�? e?�e?�e?? e��e?� i?�i??i?� i��i��i�?i??i�? i�?e��eS� i??e?�e?� e�?i��e��. ez?e�?i��e��i�? e??e??iS� e?�e�� i��iz�i��e��i�?i?� i��i��e�?iS�i�? e??e�? e�?i?�i�?i�? “e�?i?� i�?e��”e�?i�? “i??e?� i��i�?i��i?� i��i�?e?? i�?i�? i??i��e??eS?e??, iS?iz? i??e??is? i��e�?e?� i??i��i?� i��e�?i�?e?� e??i?� i��e�?e?�e?? i��i�?i�?eS� e??i?� i�?i�?e??”e??e�� e�?i�?i?? i��i�?i�?i?? i��e?�i?? i��is�i�?e��e?� e�?i?�e��. e??e��e??i��iz?i��e�?( i�?e?� (i�?i��i�?=i��i��e�?iS�) e��i??e�? iS?i??i�? = e�?iz�i?? e?�i��e�?e?? e?�i��i?� e�?i�? e��e�?i?�i�?iz?i?? i?�i�� e�?e�?i��i??is?e�?i�?i�? i��i��e?? e?�i��i�� i��i??i?� i��i??i�?i�? e��e?? e?�i��i�� i?�i??i?? e?�i?� e��i�? e??e��i??e?? e�?i�?i��e��. e?� i?�i�?iz?i?� 19i?? ‘9i�� i?�i��e?�e?�i��i�? i��i??i�?’i�? i�?e?�i�? i�� e?�e?� i�?e?�e�?i�?i�?i�? ‘i?�i��e�?e?�e?? i��e�?e?� i��eS� e��i??e?? e�?e��e?�e��’e�� i??i??i??e?? e?�i��i�� i??i�� e��i�?i��e?? e�?e��i�?e��. e?? i?�e?�e�� i��e�?e��e��i?? i�?e?�i�? e��is?e?� e?�i�?e�� e??i��i??i�?i�?iz? i??e�� i??e?�, e??e��i?? ‘i??i?� i?�i??’ i??i�� i??e?� i��i�?i�� i??e�� i??e?� e�� e?�i��i�� i��e�� i?�i??e?? e?�i�?i�� is�i??e?? e��e?�iz? i�?e��. (i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�i?�e?? e?�iz? = e��e��i�?iS? i??i��e�?i��e�?i?� i��e��iS? i�?e?�iS� e??ez?e�? i??i��i?? e��e�? i�?iz?i�? i�?i��i�? i��e?�i�?i?? i��e??e?? i??i�?e��e?� iz?e��e�� i??i��i?� i��e��e?? i�?e?�e��e?� e�?i?�e��. e��e��i�?iS? i??i��e�?i��e�?i?� i�?e?�3i�? e?�i�?e?�e?�a��i??iz�i�? 2i??i�� e��eY�i�?i??i�? 10% e?�i�? e��e??i��e�? (i�?i��i�?=i��i��e�?iS�) e��i??e�? iS?i??i�? = e?�e�?e�? iS?eY?i�� e??e�� e?�i��e�?i?? 17i??(i?�i��i�?e��) i��e��i�� i�?i�?i�? e?�i�? i��e�� e?�i�? e��e??e?? e�?i�?i�?e��. iS?eY?i�� e?�i��e�?i?� e��i��e?�i�?i�? e?�iz?e��e?? e�?e�?, i??e�� i�?e�?i�?iz?i?? i??iz?i�? i??i�� i��e��i�? e?�i�? e?�i�? e��e?? e?�i��i?� e�?i�?i�� e??i??e??e?� e�?i�?e��e?� e??i??i��i��i�� e�� i�?i��i?? e??e?�i�?e��. iS?eY?i�� i��i��e�� e��i�? i��e��i�? e?�i�? 3i�? e?�i�? e?�e?�i?? i??e?? i?�i??eS� i��e��i�� i??iz�i�? i�� 2i??i�� e��eY�(i�? 224i?� i�?)i�?i??e?? e?�i??i??e?? i�?e��. e?�i�?i??i?� i��i?? i�?e��i�� 25%e??e��eS� e��i?� 10%i?? e??i??e?? i�?e��i??e��. e??e��e?? i��e��i?� i��e�? 7, 8i�� 2i�?e?�i�? e�?i?? 340i�� e��eY�i�� 160i�� e��eY�i�?i??i?? i�?i�?i�? e?�i�? e?�i�? e?�e?�i?� i??e?�e��i�?e��. i�zi�? i��e�� i��e��eS� e�?i�? e??e��i?? 3i�? e?�i�? e?�e?�i?� e��i�?e�? e??e?� i?�i??e?? i�?e?�e��e?� e??e?�i�?e��. Yili i?�eY?i��e��e�?e�?i�?i��eS� i��e�? i??i�� a�?i�?i�? i�?i��i?� i?�i�? i?�e?� e??e?� i�?iS�i�?a�?e?? a�?e??i?� e?�i??i��e?�i??iS�a�? e��i�?i�?i�? e�Zi?� e�?e�?i?� e?�is?i?�e��. i?? i�?i��eS� i�?i�? i�?i��i?� i?�i�? i?�e?� e??e?� i�?iS�i�?i?� i��e��i�?e?� i??e�?i�?e��, i��e�� i�?i??i?? e??i?� i��e�� e?�i??i��e?�i??iS�e?? i��e�?e�?i??e�?i�?e?�, i��e��i�?i�? Yilii�� e��e�?i��i?? e�?i��i?� i��i�?i�?i�? e?�e??i�?e��.i��e�?iz?i�? 14i�? i�?e��e?� i?�i�?a��30i��e?� e��i??(i??i??e??=i��i��e�?iS�) e�?iz�i?� iS?i??i�? = i?�e�?iS�i?�i?? iz?i??e�?i?? e��iz?i��e��i�?i�? 14i??(i?�i��i�?e��) e�?i??iS�e??i�? i�?i?�e?? i�?e?? i??e?? 2e?�i?? i??iS�e??i�?e�� e�?i?�e?? i??i??e��e?� i?�iz�iS�i?�e??i??iS�e??i�? e�� i??iS�e??i�? i�?e?�i?? i��i�?e��. e��i��i��e�� i??e?? i??i??e?�i?� i??e�� e��e��iz?e??(e??i�?iz?e??) e�?i??i�? e??i�� i??iS�e??i�?e��i?� i�?i�? e??i?� e??i��e?� i?�i??i�?e?? e�?i??i��i??e�� i??iS�e??i�?e��i?� i��i?� i��is�i??e?? e�zi��e��. i?�e�?iS�i?�i?? e�?iz?i��i?? i�?e�?iS�e�� i��i??i�?eS� e��iz?i��e��i?? e??e�?e�?e��i?� i�?i?�e?� 2e?�i?? i??iS�e??i�?e�� i??e?�i�? i??i??e?� i��e�?iz? i�� 1e?�i?� 14i�? i�?e��i??e??e?� e�?i?�e��. e?? i?�e�?iS�i?�i??i?? 30i�� e?�i?? i�?i?� e?�i�� e��i?�e��e?� e?�e��i?�e��.

e??iS�i��i��e�?iS�i?�i��i�?i�� i?�i��e??e??e��i��LA 1907e��i�? i�?iz�e?? e??iS�i��i��e�?iS�i?�i��i�?(LAi?�i��i�?(R))eS� e��e�� i�?e��eS� i?�i��i�? i�� e�?e??i�?i�? e��iz? e??i�� i�?e��eS� i??is� i?�i��i�?i??e��. 2016e��i�?eS� e?� i�?i?? i��e�?iS�i��e�?iS?e�?i??e�?e?�i??i�?e�� i��e�?i��e�? i?? i��iS�i?�(CCE)i�? i��i��e??i�? i??e??is? i�?i�?e?? e?�i?�i?� i�?e�?i�?e?� is?i�?e?? e??e??e��i��i?? e??ez?i�? e?�i�? e��iz? i��is�i�? i??iS?e?? i��e?�i�?e?� i?�i�? e?�i?�e?? iz?e?�i�? i��i��i?? i?�i��i�?eS� i��e?� i�?i??i?? i��i�� i��i�?is?i?? i?�i��e??e??e��i��LA™e�� e??i�?e��. i?�i��e??e??e��i��LA 2018i?� 11i�� 26~29i?? i��i??i�? e??iS�i��i��e�?iS�i�?e?�i�?i�?i��i�?i�? i�?e��e�� i�?i?�i��e��i?? i��i�?e?� i��e?�i�?i�? e�?i�?e??e��. LAi?�i��i�? 2018i�? e?�i�? i??e�?i?? e?�e�?eS� 11i�� 30i?? -12i�� 9i??i??e��. i?�i��e??e??e��i��LAi�?i�?eS� i??e??is? iz?e?�i�? e?�i�?e�?iS�e�� e�?e��i�?i��e?�, is?e?�i�?i?? i�?i�?i?? i��e??i??e��, i�� i�?e?� i�?e?�i��i�� i��e?� i��e�?e��e�� i�zi�?i�? i��ez�i?? e�?i�?e??e��. LAi?�i��i�?eS� i��L.A. i��i�?e�?eY�i?�is?e�� i��i�?i�?e�� ANSAi��e??e?�i�?i�?e�� i��i��i?� e�?eS�e��. i?�i��i�? e?�e�? i�?i�� e�?iS�i�� i��e??e?? e��i�� e??e��e�? iS?i?�i��i�?i�? AutoMobility LAe?? i?�e??is�i�?e?� e��ez�e��. i��e�? i??e�?, i??i��e��i�� e?�i?�i��i��i?� i?�i��e??e??e��i��LAi?? i??e??is? i?Yi??iS�iS? https://automobilityla.com/podcast/i�?i�? e��i?� i?? iz?e��. e��e�?i?? e?�i��e�?i?� e�?i�? e?�e?�i�? i��i��e?? i��i�? “i?�eS? e??i�?i��i?� e��i�? i��e?�i�?eS� e??i?� i�?e�?e?�i?? i��i�? i��i��e?? i??i?�i�?e?� e?�i�?i�? i��i??e?? i?�e�?i?? e??ez?e?? e�?i��e��eS� i�?e�?i�?i?? e?� e??”i??e??e�?i�? “e?� e�?i��e�� e??i�?i��i?� ‘i?�e??i�?i�� i??e�?i��i��e??’e?? i��i�? is�e�� e??i�?i?? iz�e?�i�?e?? e??i?�i��i?? e?�i��i�?i?� i??e??eS� i?�e??i?? e?� e??”i??e??e?� e��i?�i�?e��. i�?e?� i�?e?�i?�i�?i??iS? e��i�?e?�i��i�� ‘e��e??iS� e??e?�e�?’ e?? i?? i��i�?i?�i�� i�?e��i?? i��is?i�?i�� e�?i�� i�?e?� e?�i��i��a��e??e�?i�� i��i�? (i?�i�?i??iS?i�?i��=i��i��e�?iS�) e��i�?i?? iS?i??i�? = 12i??(i?�i��i�?e��) i??e?? i��eY� i��i�?i�� e��e�� i��ez?i?? e��i�zi�� e?�iz?i�? i?�i�?i??iS?i�?i��i?? i?�i�?i??iS? e��i�?e?�i��i�?i�? i�?e��i??i?� i�?i��i��eS� i??i?� e�?e�� i�?e��i�� i�Si�?e��. e�?iS�i?�e?? i�? i��ez?i?� i??e�? ‘99%’ i�?e��i??i??e??e?� e??e?� i?�e?? i��e��i�� i�Si�?e��. e�?iS�i?�e?? i��is�i�? i??i?? e??eS� i??i�?e?? e��e��e�� i�?e��i�?e?? “e�?i�� i?� e��e?�e��”e?� i�?e?�e�? “e��”e??eS� i�?e��i�? e��i?? e??i��i��e��. e��i?� is?i�� i�?i�?i?� e�?i��i�?eY� e�?i��e��eS� i?? i�?e��i??i?� “e��e??iS�(i��e?� i??i??e?�i�?i��e��) e�?i�? i�?i�?i?? i?�i�?i??iS?i?? i�?e�� e�?e??e?? e?�i�� i??iz�i�? i��i??i�?i�? e�?i��iz? e��iz? i?� e?�i��i��”e??e�� “i�?e��i?? e��i?�e?? is?i��i�?i�? i??i�?e?? i��i��e�� i??e��”e?� e�?i�?e��. e�?eY�e�?i�? “i�?i��e�? i��e?� i�?e��i??e��i?� e�?eY� i??i?? iz?eS�i��e?� e??e??e?� iz?e��”e?� e?�e��i?�e��. i��is�e��e?? e?�e??i�? e�?i�� i��i�� i??i�? e��e�� i��ez?e��i?? i??i�?e?? i?�e��eS� i?�i�?i??iS? e��i�?e?�i�� iz�e��iz?i�� e��e??iS�i?? i��i��i?? i??i�?i?� e�?i��i�?eS� e?�e?�i�� e��i?� iz?e?�eS� e?? i?? i��i�?e��. e?? iz�e��i�?eS� iS?e�?i?� i��i??i?? i??i??i?� i�?e�?i??e?? e�?i��i�?eS� i��i�� iz�e��i�?i�?e?? e��i??i�� i�Si��e?� iz�e��iz?i?� i��e??i�� i?? iz?i�?e��. i��i��i�? ‘e��e??iS� is�e�� i��i��’i??e??e?� i�� i?? iz?eS� e�?i�� i��i�� 6e�?e�� e��i�?iz?eS� e�?e?�iz?e?? iz�e�� i��i��e?�e?? e?�e??e?? i��e??i�?e��. iz�e��iz?e?? i??e?�e?? i�? e��e??iS�i�? e?�i�? e??e?�e�?i??e�? i�?e�?e�?i?� i�?i��e?? i?? i��i�?e��. i�?e��i?? e��e??iS� i��i��iz?eS� i?? e?�i��i?� i��i�? 6i?? e��e��e??i�? i?�ez?e��. i?�i�?i??iS?i�?i��e?? e��e?� i?�i�? i��e?�iZ?i?� i�?iS?i�?e?? e�?e��i??e��i�?e?�i�� i�?3i��e??e�?i�?i�?e?� e��e??iS�e?? i??i??i�?e??e��e�?, i�?e�? e�?e?�i�?e��eS� i�?i�?i?� e?�i��i�? i�?e�?e�?i?� i��i�?e��. i?�i�?i??iS?e?? e��e�?i�?e?? i�?e��i?? 1e?�i?? 8i?? e��e??iS� i��i�� i??i��i?� e��i�?e��eS� i�?i�?i?� e�?iz? e�?e?�e?? ‘e�?i?? e�?e??’ i�?e?�i?�e��. e�?e?� e�?eY? e??i?? i��e?�i�?i�?eS� e��e??iS�e�� i??e?? i??i??i�?i�? i�� i��i�?e?�i??e??eS� i??i�?i?? i��i?� i��e?�e?? i��is�e��i��e??e?�i��e?? i�?i�?i�?e�? i��ez?e��i?? i??e?�i?� e��i�� e?�i�?e��. i�?e?�e??e�?e?�e��(WHO)i?? iz?e??e?? e??e�? e��e??iS�i?? i��i�?i��e??e?� i�� i?? iz?eS� i��is�e��eS� i?�i�? e��i�? 108e?�(32e?� i��e�?)i?? e�?i??i�?i?� e?? e�?i�� i��i��i?� i��i��i??e?? i�? i��e?�i?? e��e?? i��i��i�?i�� e��i?? e??e?�e??i�� i�Si�?e��. i?�e�?e?? i��ez?i�?e??e��iS?(UAE)i�?i�? i�? e?�i�� i��i�� i??i��e??i?� e??i??e��. iS?iz? i?�i�?i??iS?eS� i��is�e��eS� e�?e?� i�?e��i�?i�? e��e??iS�e�� i�?e�?i�?e?? 2015e��i�?e?� e�? 1e�?i?? e��e??iS� i��i��iz?e�� e�?i��e��. e�?i�? i�?e��i�?i�? i��i??e?? e��e??iS� e�?i�?iz?eS� 185e?�i??e?? i��is�e��i�? i??i�? i��i�?e?� e�? e??i�?e?? e�Zi�?e��. i?�i�?i??iS? i��e��e?� iz?e��i?? e��e??iS� i?�i��e��e��e?? iz?e��i�� e�?i?? e��e??iS�i�? e??e�?i�? iZ?i?� i��e�?e??eS� e?? i?�i�� e�?e??e��i?? i��i�?i??e��. iz�e��iz?i�?i�? e�?e�? UAE e�?e��i??i�?i�? i?? i��i??e�?(44) i�?eS� “4a??5e�� i��i�� e��e??iS�e�� i?� e�?i�?i?�i��e�? i��e??i?� i??i??i�?i?? e�?e?� i??i��i??e?? i��e??e��”e?� e�?i�?e��. “i?�i�?i??iS?e?? e��e�?i�?e?? i�?e��i??i?? i�?e�? e��e??iS�i�? e�?e�� e��e��i�?i??e?? i?� i??iS?e��”e??e?� i�?e?�e�? “e�?e�? e��i�?e??i�� e?�i�?e��. i��e?� i��ez?e��i?� e�?i��i?? i??e?? e?? e��e��”e?� i�?i??e�?i�? e?�e��i�?e��. e�?e�? i?�i�� i�?e��i??e??e��eS� i??e�?iz? e??e�?i��i?? e��i��i�� e��i?�e?�i?�e��. 3e�� i�� i��e��e??i?� e?�i?�e?? e?�i��e�?i�?e?? e��e??iS� i��i??i?? e?�i�� i?�i??e��. i�? i?�i�� i??iz�i�?i?� “i��e?�i�?i�? e��e??iS�eS� i�?e��i??e�? e�?e��i�?i�?eS� i�?e?�”i??e??e�� “e��e??iS�e�� i��e�?e?? ‘i?�e??iS�'(i�?e�� i??i??e?� i�?i��e��)e??eS� e�?e�?i?� i�� i��e?�e��”e??e?� e�?i�?e��.i��e�� i??is� i??e�? i?�i??e?? e�? e��i��a��iS�e�?iS?i?� e?�i�� i�?e?� 1Gbps(i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�i?�i�� e?�iz? = SKi��e�?i?�[017670]i?� e?�i??e??e�� 4e�� e?�e?? i�?i�?e?� i��i??i??i?? i�?e?�iS� ‘T i��i??i??i?? AX’e?? i??is�i��i�?e��e?� 17i?? e�?i?�e��. T i��i??i??i?? AXeS� 802.11ax i�?i�� e?�e�?i?? i��i??i??i?? i�?e?�iS�e??, AP(i��i�?iz?i??)e�? i�?e?� 4.8Gbpsi?? i�?e?�e?? i�?e?�i�?e��. i??eS� i��e�? 2013e�� i??is�i��e?? e?�e�� i��i??i??i??(802.11ac Wave1, 1.3Gbps)e??e�� i�? 4e�� e?�e?? i�?e?�e��. iS�e�?iS?i?� e?�i�� i�?e?� i�?e?�eS� 1Gbpse?? e?�i??(866Mbps)e??e�� i�? 1.2e�� e??e??i??e��. e�?e�� i�?i�?e??eS� i�?ez?e�?i�� iS�e�?iS?i?�i?� e?�i??i�� i��i�� is?i??i?? i�?i??e?? i�?e?� i�?e?�e�� 1.2Gbpse??i�� eS?i�?e�� e??i??e?? SKi��e�?i?�i?� i??i??i�?e��. SKi��e�?i?�i?� i��i??i??i?? i��is�eY�i?? e�Zi?� i�?is? i�?i��e?� i?�i��iS�, e?�i?? i?�iS�i�?i�? e�� i??is� i??e�?i?� i��i��i??e?? i??is�e�?i?� e��i��i�?e?�, i��e�� e?�i??i�� iS?ez?i�? e��i�� i��i��i??e?? i��e?�e��i��(i��i��e?�i?�)e?? i��e?�i�� e?�is?i??e��. e��eY�i�?S8 i??i�� i�?i�?e?? i??is� i�?ez?e�?i�� iS�e�?iS?i?� i??is� e?�e�?i?� e?�e?� i?�i?? i��i?? i�?i�?e?� i��i??i??i??e?? i??is�i�� i?? iz?e��. T i��i??i??i?? AXeS� e��e�? i�?i??e?? i��e��i?? e?�i�? i??i�?i?� e��i?� i??is� APe?? i�?is�i�?e��. i�?e�? APeS� i��e�?e�� e�? e��e�?i��i??i��e��i�?i??e??e��i�� i��iz?i?? i�?i�� i??i�?i?�, e??i��e?�i?�i��e??i��i��e��e??e��i�� i�?i?� iz?e?� iS?i??i?� e��i�?e��. T i��i??i??i?? AXeS� 4e�?i?? i�?i�?e�?e?? i�?is�i�? i��i??e?? i�?i??i��i�?e��, i�?is� i??i??i?? e?�i��i?�e?� 160aZ�(e��e��i��e??i?�)e?? e?�i?? e?�e�� i��i??i??i??e??e�� 2e�� e��e��. i��e?�i�? iS?ez?i�?i?? e�Zi?� i�?e??i�?i�? i�?i��i�?i?? i�?e?�iS�e�� e��eS?i�?e?�e?? a�? e��i?? i??is�iz? e?�i?? e?�i�? e?�i??i�� i��i�?(OFDMA, MU-MIMO) a�? AP i??iz? i��i��i�?i�?i?? i��i??i??i?? i��eS? e�?i��(DSC) e��i?? e?�i?�i?� i�?is�i�?e��. SKi��e�?i?�i?� e??i�? i�?e?� i�?e?� e��i?�i?� i?�i�? SKe??e??e�?e�?e�?i?? ’10e?�e��(Gbps)’ i??i��e�� e?�e�? e?�i?�i?� i�?is�i�?e��.

i�?e?�(i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) i�?i��i?? e?�iz? = e��i�?i��i��i��i??i?�i�?is?eS� 19i?? i�?is? e?�e?� e��i�?is?e?�i�?i�? ‘2018e�� 7i�� i??e��i?? i?�i?� i��e??e�?ez?’ i�?i??i�?i?� i�?i�?e��. i�?is�i??i??i?� i??e??i??i??i?� i?�i?�i�?eS� i�?e??iS�i�� i??e?�e�? i?�i�?i��i??e?? e?�e�?i�?e?� e�? e?�i�?i?� e??i?�i�? KBS-1TVi?? ‘KBSiS�iZ?i�? – i�?e??iS�i�� i��e�� 2e��iz�’i?? e��i�?e��. SBS-TV ‘e�?e??i?? i�?e?�i��e�� – i??i�?e?� i��e??i��i�� i�SeS�a��i�?i�?e�? e�?e?�e?�i??i??i?? i��i��’, e��i��e��i�? ‘e��i��e��i�? iS?e?�e?�is? e?�i��i?? i??e?� – i�?i??i��i��i?�e?�, e�?i�?i��iS?i��i?�’, JTBC ‘e??iS� i�?e�?e??e?�’, KBS-i��i??1TV ‘i??i�?iS? e�?e??e�?e?? i�?i�?3’e�� e�?e�? e��e�?e?� is�i??iz�i??e?? i��i��e??e��. i??e��i?? i?�i?� i��e??e�?ez?i?� e��i�?i�?iz�i??i?? i�?iz�i??is� e?�i�?i�� e��i�?i��e??e�?ez?i?? i�?i�? i�?i??i?� i?�i�? 1991e��e��i�� is?i??e??eS� i�?i??i�?e?�e��.(i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) e?�e��e�? e?�iz? = e?�i�?e??e�� iz�i�?i��e�� i�?e�?e��iz? e��i?� i��iz�i�? e?�e�?is?e?�e�� i?�i�?i��(1887e�� 4i��a??1958e�� 9i��) i��i?? i�?e�� 60i??e?� i��e??i�?e�� 10i?? i?�i�� 11i�? e��e�?i�?is?i?�i��i�? i?�i��e?�i�?i�? i�?e��e��e?� e��e��e??i�?i??e�� 9i?? e�?i?�e��. i��e??i�?i?�i�?is?(is?iz? i??i?�e�?)e�� i??e?�i�?eS� i��i��i�?eS� i�?is�i�� e??i�?i??iz?, e�?e?� i??i��, i??e�?i�?e?? e�� 200i�� e?�i?? i�?i�?i�?e��. i?�i�?i�� i��i??i?� 1917e�� e?�e?�e�?e?�i��i�?i?� e�?i�?i�?e?�, 1919e�� e?�i�?e??e��iz�i�?i��e�� i??e�? e�?i�? iz�i�?i�?iz?i?� e?�i??i�?e��. iz�i�?i��e��i?? i�?e�?e��iz?i?� i��iz�i�?e�� e??e��, i??e��, i��e�� e�� i��i��e��i?� i??e?�e?? i�?e�?i�? i�?e�?i�?e?�i?� iZ?i?�e��. 1930e�� i�?e��e?�e�?e�?i?� i�?e�?i�?e?�, i�?e��i??i??e?? i�?i�?i�?e��. 1941e�� i�?e��i??i??i�? e��e?? e?�i�?e??e�� e�?e��e��e�?i?� e?�i??i�?eS� e�� i??i??i?� i?�e�� e?�e�?i?� i?�i�? i�?i��i�?e��. 1989e�� iz�i�?i��e�� i�?e?� e��i?? e?�e??e?? e?�i�?e??e��iz?i?? i�?i�?e??e��. i��i?? e��e�?i?� 6i?�i�?, e��i??, iz?e�� e�� i?? 14e?�i?? e?�e�?is?e?� i?�i??i?� e��i�?e��. i�? is?iz?i?� 930i�� e��eY� e�?e??i?? i�?i��iS?e��i?� e?�i�� iZ�e�?e?? is?i??i�?e�?i�? ‘i�?i�?’i??e?? e�?e��eS� i?�i�� e??e??e�?e�?e�? i��i��i�? e��i�?i?� i?�iz?i�?e��. iS�iZ?i??iS�Xe?� i�?i�?i�? e?�i��i?� e��e?� iz?e?� i�?i��iS?e��i?�i��i?? i?�e�?i?� e??i?�i�?eS� e??i??e?? i�?e��i??e��. i�zi�? e??iS�i?�eS� e�� i��i�� e?�is?i�? e?�i�? “1i??i?? i��e?� e?�i��i??e�� e�? i��i��i�? e?�i�? i??e�?i�? i??i��i?? e??i�?e??(e��i?�i��)i?� i��e�?i�?i�? i�?e��”e?� e�?iz? e�� iz?e��. e��e??i�? i�?i??i?? e�� i��i��e�?i?� i??i��i�? iz�e�?i?� e��i��i�? e?�i�?i?? e��eS?i�� e??i??e??eS� e?�i??i?? e�Zi�?e��. e�?ez? e�?i��e��i??e?? e??i?� e�?e?� is�i?? i??i��i�? e�?i�� i��ez?i?� 2009e�� i�?i?�i�? TMA-16i?� i?�e?� e��i�?is�i??i��e��iz?(ISS)e??i�� e��i��e�� e��i?? ez�e��e?�e??iS?e�� i?�i??i�?e��. e�?eS� i��e?� 7e??i�? is�i?? e?�e?�e�?i??i�?e?� i??iz?i??iS�i?�i�?i�? i�?e�?i�?e��.i??i??e�? e��e?�i�?e?�iz?i�? e?�i�? i��i�?A�i�?i�?is? e�� e��i��e?�e?? i�?e��(i??e?�=i��i��e�?iS�) e��e?�e?� e?�iz? = i��e��e�?e�� i�?i�?e�? i??i?? i?�e?�i�? i��e�? i??e?�e�� i??i??e�?i�?i�? ‘e��i?� i��i?? i��e�?’i??e?? e�?e��eS� i�?i??e?�i�? i��i�?e�� i�?e��e��. e??i??e?�i��i�? i??e�? i��ez? e?�e?�i?? e��i��i�?i?? e?�e�?i�? iz? i��eS� i��is?eS� e��e�?iz? i?�i��i�? i�� e?�i�?e��. e?�i�?e??e��i?? e?�i��i?� e�?e�?i�? e�?e��i?? i��e?�i��e��i?? i�?is? i??i��i�?i??e?�i�? i�?e?�(i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) i��e?�i�? e�?i��i?�i�? = i�?e�?e�� i�?i��i?�eS� e?�e?�i�?i?� iz?i??e?�e�?i?? i??e??e?? e??i??e?�eS� e��i??e��. e��e��i?�eS� 8i�� 15i??i?� e�?e�� iz�i�?i��e�� i??e�? 100i??e��i?� i�ze�?e?� iz?i�? i??e??e�� i?�e��e�� e?Se��. e?�e�?is?e?�e��e��i?? i??i�? iz�i�?i��e��e?? i�?is? i�� i�?i�? 1i�?e?�e�� i��e�? i��e??, e??ez?e?? e�?i��e��e?� i?�i�?i�?e??e?� i��e�? i�?e?�e?? e??i�?iz? e??e??i��e??i�? i�?e��. 100e�� i�� iz�i�� i��e?�iz?e��i?� e??i��e?? ‘e�?e��'(a??a?�)i?� e??i�?eS� e??i?? i��e�?e?? i??e??is? ‘e??e��'(?��a?�)i?� e�?i��i�?eS� e??i?� e??e??i�?e��. 100e��i?? i��e�? i��e?? i��i�?e��i?� ‘e??e��’i?? e?�i�? e��i��i�?eS� e�?e??e?? e�?i��i�?eS�e��.e�?i�? e�?e?�A�i??e?? e��i��i�? “e�?e�? i�?i�?e�?i�� i??i�� e?� i�?” i�?e�?i�?e�? 5e��e�� i��i�?i?? i��e��i?? 1i??485e?� i�?e�?a��i��e�� 22e?? i��i��iz? i??i��(i�?is?=i��i��e�?iS�) i�?i��i?? e?�iz? = e��iZ?e?�i�? i��i?? i??i??i?�iZ?i??eS� i��e�� e?�i�? e??i�?i?? i��e�? 8i�� e?�i�� 1i?�8i??i��i�?i?� e??i??i�?e��e?� 19i?? e�?i?�e��. i??i??i?�iZ?i??eS� “i��i�� e?�e?� i??i?�e�� e��ez?i�?i?? i?�e?? i??iS?i�?e?� iz?i�? 9i��i�?eS� i��e�� e��ez?i�?i?? 2i?�i�?i?� e??i??i�� e??”i??e??e?� i��e�?i�?e��. i��e�?e�� e�?i�?i�? ‘i??i??i?�iZ?i?? QRe?�i�?’eS� i�?e?�iS�e?? i��i?�i�? i�?i?�e�� 10e�? e??i?� e�?i�?e��.IT/e??i�� e??e�?e��e�? QRe?�i�? e��e�?i�?i?� i��i��e?�e?? e??e�? i�?e?�A�e�?i�?A�i??i??A�i��i�� e�� i�Si?� i�?e?�i?�i?? i��ez?e�� i�?e�?i�? i�?is? e�?i?�e��e�� i��is�iz? i??i�� e?�i�?eY�, i?? e��ez?i�? e??e�? i��e��i�?i�? e��iz? e�Zi�?e��e?� i??i??i?�iZ?i??eS� i��i�?e��. i��i?�e?�e??eS� i�?A�i??e?? e��i�?e�� 33%e?? e��iz? e�Zi�?e?�, i??e??A�iz?i�� e�? i�?e�� e�� iz�i�� i??e�� e��i�? 23%, i�?e?�iS� 14%, e�?i??A�e��i�� e��i�? 6% e�� i??i??i�?e��. e?�i�? e??i�?i?� 1e�?i�? e??e�?i?? i��i??i?? 61%e?? i�?i��i�?e��. e??i??i�� e?�i�?eS� “i��is�iz?e��i?� i?�i�? e��i��i�? i??i??e?? i��e??e??i�?i?� i��i�?i�?i??e?? e?�e??i�? is�e��e�?e??i�?i�? e��i?�e�?A�QRi?�e�? e��i�?i?? e??e��i?? e��iZ?e?�i�? i�?iS�i�?i?? e??iZ?i�?i?? e?�i�? i??e�?i??e?? i��e?�e?� i?? iz?e?�e?? i�?i��i?� e��i�?e?�e��”e?� e�?i�?e��. e�Zi?� i��i��i??i�?i�� i��i��i�?i��i?� e?�i��i�? i�?is�i�? i��iz?e?�e?� i�?i�?i?� e??i�?i�?e?� iz?e��. i��e��iz?e��i?� i��iz?i�� is?e??e?? e?�e�?i??e?? i�?eS� i��iz?i�� i��i��(QHRA�Quantum Hall Resistance)i?� i�?i��e��i??e?? i�?eS�e��. e�?eY�e?� i��iz?i�� i��i��i?� 12.9a?� i??i��i??i�?i�? e?�i��i�� i�?i��i??e??eS� i�?i�?i?? e?�i�?e��. i�?i��i??e?? i�?i?� i?? iz?i?� e�?i?? e?�i�?i�� i�SeS� i��iz? e?�i��i��i?� i��i?�i�?e?�iz? i??e?? ‘NMIJ'(National Metrology Institute of Japan)i�?i�� 100i��e�?i?? i��iz?i�� i��i��i?� i�?e��e?? i��e?�i�? 1a?? i��iz?i�� e?�i��i�� e��i�?i?� e�?e��i�?e��. i??e?�i?� e��i?�i??e?? e�?e�� i?? i��i��i?� e�?eY�e�? e?�i�? e??i��i�?i�? i�?e?�i�? e��e�?i?�e��. i??e?? i��e��i��i?? i��e?�i�?i��e��i�? i�?i??i?� i??i��e?�i?�i?� e��i�� i�?i��i��i�? e?�e?�i��e��e?? i�?i�?i�? e�? i??eY� e��e??i�?i�?e��.

Comments are closed.